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The End of Nationalism?

July 16, 2018 - 11:45
Tags:  Kosovo, Yugoslavia, ethnic cleansing, ethnic reconciliation, Islam, Orthodox Monasteries, nationalism

As a student of nationalism, I was excited to visit a country younger than my teenage daughter. And so, in May 2018 I found myself in Kosovo to deliver a series of lectures at the University of Pristina.

Kosovo declared itself independent from Serbia on February 17, 2008 following a brutal war between 1998 and 1999. Thousands of Kosovar Albanians were forced to flee the ethnic cleansing pursued by Serbia’s president, Slobodan Milosovic, and seek refuge in the rain-soaked camps along the border with Macedonia. Milosovic’s actions led to a NATO intervention in the late spring of 1998 that forced Serbia to withdraw its forces. I remember my feelings during this war, horrified by Milosovic’s violent directives but suspicious of NATO’s intentions at the same time.

With these memories vaguely in my mind, I had before me a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity — to discover a nation in the state of creation. How would it be to live in a country seeking the institutions of nationhood?

The taxi driver, however, was more interested in showing me the signs of modernity on the way from the airport: the large twenty-four-hour supermarket, opulent shopping centers, and the new KFC. He eagerness reminded me of my cousin, Yanni, who rushed to take me to the new Athens metro upon my arrival in Athens many years ago. Rather than visiting the Acropolis, I found myself sitting in the subway car with Yanni grinning at Greece’s modernity. And in my mind, I tried to create a new T-Shirt for sale in the Greek capital: “I came all the way to Athens but all I got was a subway ride.”

That was the message of the Kosovar taxi driver: You will feel at home in Kosovo because we are European. Societies, seeing themselves belated, sprint forward to adopt and then show off their newly developed western institutions.

It was in the National Museum that I got a taste of nationalism in action. History has shown that, after independence, a country seeks the cultural institutions of nationhood. In addition to forming an army, bureaucracy, education system, embassies abroad and so on, nations strive to develop a national literature, museums, and theaters to showcase their new national identity.

And so, visiting the National Museum after my last lecture, I was able to observe how this institution documented the history of Kosovo from prehistoric times to the present. I witnessed there what I had seen elsewhere: an attempt to provide a seamless history from antiquity to the present. Nations may be new but they claim an ancient pedigree, justifying their existence by weaving a story of continuity from an earlier time.

But it was on the second floor, devoted to the Kosovo War and independence from Serbia, that I faced the utter contemporaneity of Kosovar nationalism. For it’s not every day that the artefacts from a battle of independence are motorcycles, hand-grenades, police uniforms, and computers, rather than rifles, swords, pens, banners, and trumpets, as I had seen in countless other museums.

Most disturbing was the display of photographs by a Kosovar journalist who had documented his family’s violent deportation to Macedonia. Looking at the black-and-white images of refugees, corpses, and camps, I remembered my conversation earlier with Mirlind, the journalist who had invited me to Kosovo.

During the war he and his family had taken a bus voluntarily to Macedonia but were stopped by Serb irregular forces and made to go home. Mirlind wondered how his life would have changed, had those soldiers let them cross the border where they would have claimed political asylum and been allowed to live somewhere in western Europe — a heady thought for someone in his mid-twenties.

How did he feel now, I asked? What did it mean to him that his uncle was a soldier in the Kosovar Liberation Army? More importantly, how did he look at those Serbian soldiers that had prevented him from escaping the war?

I wanted to know how a person deals with trauma. Do they try to reconcile with their former oppressors or continue to punish them with loathing? Do they, in other words, go on hating hate?

I found myself posing these questions at lunch with three colleagues after my first lecture. Perhaps it was impertinent of me to ask, especially as I never had to face these issues. But I noticed the consternation on their faces, the pain perhaps of recalling sorrowful events. One colleague described how her hand had been broken during a demonstration many years earlier as a student. Others mentioned the steady disenchantment with the federalism in Yugoslavia. All three were grateful not to have lost any relatives in the war.  As a guest, I became caught up with the contradictions of nationalism, paradoxes that I had otherwise only had to confront intellectually in my work.

These tensions became palpable the day earlier when Mirlind took us to the fourteenth-century Serbian Orthodox Monastery of Gracanica, located in a Kosovar Serbian town 20 minutes outside of Pristina. Clearly there was nervousness when we arrived in one of the few Serbian enclaves left after independence. I felt this very anxiety two days later in the lovely city of Prizren, when we visited the Serbian church of St. George, the Great Martyr that had been set alight in 2004. Later in the day, when we stopped at the abandoned monastery of the Holy Archangels on the way to the Ottoman castle atop the hill, the guard had asked us if we were Orthodox. We were the only ones stopped of the hundreds of visitors climbing up to the castle.

Standing later on the walls of this castle and marveling at the view below of the Bistrica River, the stone bridges, the Sinan Pasha Mosque, all splendid in the afternoon sun, I wondered how people rebuild a society after war. How do Kosovar Serbs themselves feel now about living in an independent state they never sought, constituting a minority in one of the youngest countries in the world?  Where is home? How many Serbs fled Kosovo after the war? What about the Kosovar Albanian woman Mirlind told me about, who still sets the table for her long-lost family? Does every nationalism lead to a dispossession?

Undoubtedly nationalism has its ugly side: Slobodan Milosovic’s ethnic cleansing, Donald Trump’s anti-immigrant crusade, Victor Orban’s Islamophobia, Benjamin Netanyahu’s violence against Gazans, Nikolás Maduro’s destructive populism. When I hear the rants of these leaders about walls, enemies, criminals, foreigners, national carnage and national humiliation, I fear how their followers might respond.

At the same time, I realize it’s easy to criticize the abuses of nationalism if you already have a nation. But things look different to a Palestinian or a Kurd or even a Catalonian. Given the cultural and political oppression the Kosovar Albanians faced, how could they not seek their own nationhood. Nationalism, after all, offers safety and succor to the nation.

On the ruined walls of an old empire I felt the push and pull of the modern age, the tension between violence, repression, death, on the one hand, and peace, freedom, and hope, on the other.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Artificial Intelligence and The Fall of Eve

July 10, 2018 - 12:30
Tags:  Milton, artificial intelligence, computers, Evolution

We seem to need foundational narratives.

 

Big picture stories that make sense of history’s bacchanal march into the apocalypse.

Broad-stroke predictions about how artificial intelligence (AI) will shape the future of humanity made by those with power arising from knowledge, money, and/or social capital.[1] Knowledge, as there still aren’t actually that many real-deal machine learning researchers in the world (despite the startling growth in paper submissions to conferences like NIPS), people who get excited by linear algebra in high-dimension spaces (the backbone of deep learning) or the patient cataloguing of assumptions required to justify a jump from observation to inference.[2] Money, as income inequality is a very real thing (and a thing too complex to say anything meaningful about in this post). For our purposes, money is a rhetorical amplifier, be that from a naive fetishism of meritocracy, where we mistakenly align wealth with the ability to figure things out better than the rest of us,[3] or cynical acceptance of the fact that rich people work in private organizations or public institutions with a scope that impacts a lot of people. Social capital, as our contemporary Delphic oracles spread wisdom through social networks, likes and retweets governing what we see and influencing how we see (if many people, in particular those we want to think like and be like we’ll want to like it too), our critical faculties on amphetamines as thoughtful consideration and deliberation means missing the boat, gut invective the only response fast enough to keep pace before the opportunity to get a few more followers passes us by, Delphi sprouting boredom like a 5 o’clock shadow, already on to the next big thing. Ironic that big picture narratives must be made so hastily in the rat race to win mindshare before another member of the Trump administration gets fired.

Most foundational narratives about the future of AI rest upon an implicit hierarchy of being that has been around for a long time. While proffered by futurists and atheists, the hierarchy dates back to the Great Chain of Being that medieval Christian theologists like Thomas Aquinas built to cut the physical and spiritual world into analytical pieces, applying Aristotelian scientific rigor to the spiritual topics.

The hierarchy provides a scale from inanimate matter to immaterial, pure intelligence. Rocks don’t get much love on the great chain of being, even if they carry the wisdom and resilience of millions of years of existence. They contain, in their sifting-shifting grain of sands, the secrets of fragility and the whispered traces of tectonic plates and sunken shores. Plants get a little more love than rocks, and apparently Venus fly traps (plants that resemble animals?) get more love than, say, yeast (if you’re a fellow member of the microbiome-issue club, you like me are in total awe of how yeast are opportunistic sons of bitches who sense the slightest shift in pH and invade vulnerable tissue with the collective force of stealth guerrilla warriors). Humans are hybrids, half animal, half rational spirit, our sordid materiality, our silly mortality, our mechanical bodies ever weighting us down and holding us back from our real potential as brains in vats or consciousnesses encoded to live forever in the flitting electrons of the digital universe. There are a shit ton of angels. Way more angel castes than people castes. It feels repugnant to demarcate people into classes, so why not project differences we live day in and day out in social interactions onto angels instead? And, in doing so, basically situate civilized aristocrats as closer to God than the lower and more animalistic members of the human race? And then God is the abstract patriarch on top of it all, the omnipotent, omniscient, benevolent patriarch who is also the seat of all our logical paradoxes, made of the same stuff as Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, the guy who can be at once father and son, be the circle with the center everywhere and the circumference nowhere, the master narrator who says, don’t worry, I got this, sure that hurricane killed tons of people, sure it seems strange that you can just walk into a store around the corner and buy a gun and there are mass shootings all the time, but trust me, if you could see the big picture like I see the big picture, you’d get how this confusing pain will actually result in the greatest good to the most people.

I’m going to be sloppy here and not provide hyperlinks to specific podcasts or articles that endorse variations of this hierarchy of being: hopefully you’ve read a lot of these and will have sparks of recognition with my broad stroke picture painting.[4] But what I see time and again are narratives that depict AI within a long history of evolution moving from unicellular prokaryotes to eukaryotes to slime to plants to animals to chimps to homo erectus to homo sapiens to transhuman superintelligence as our technology changes ever more quickly and we have a parallel data world where we leave traces of every activity in sensors and clicks and words and recordings and images. These big picture narratives focus on the pre-frontal cortex as the crowning achievement of evolution, man distinguished from everything else by his ability to reason, to plan, to overcome the rugged tug of instinct and delay gratification until the future, to make guesses about the probability that something might come to pass in the future and to act in alignment with those guesses to optimize rewards, often rewards focused on self gain and sometimes on good across a community (with variations). And the big thing in this moment of evolution with AI is that things are folding in on themselves, we no longer need to explicitly program tools to do things, we just store all of human history and knowledge on the internet and allow optimization machines to optimize, reconfiguring data into information and insight and action and getting feedback on these actions from the world according to the parameters and structure of some defined task. And some people (e.g., Gary Marcus or Judea Pearl) say no, no, these bottom up stats are not enough, we are forgetting what is actually the real hallmark of our pre-frontal cortex, our ability to infer causal relationships between phenomena A and phenomena B, and it is through this appreciation of explanation and cause that we can intervene and shape the world to our ends or even fix injustices, free ourselves from the messy social structures of the past and open up the ability to exercise normative agency together in the future (I’m actually in favor of this kind of thinking). So we evolve, evolve, make our evolution faster with our technology, cut our genes crisply and engineer ourselves to be smarter. And we transcend the limitations of bodies trapped in time, transcend death, become angel as our consciousness is stored in the quick complexity of hardware finally able to capture plastic parallel processes like brains. And inch one step further towards godliness, ascending the hierarchy of being. Freeing ourselves. Expanding. Conquering the march of history, conquering death with blood transfusions from beautiful boys, like vampires. Optimizing every single action to control our future fate, living our lives with the elegance of machines.

It’s an old story.

Many science fiction novels feel as epic as Disney movies because they adapt the narrative scaffold of traditional epics dating back to Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and Virgil’s Aeneid. And one epic quite relevant for this type of big picture narrative about AI is John Milton’s Paradise Lost, the epic to end all epics, the swan song that signaled the shift to the novel, the fusion of Genesis and Rome, an encyclopedia of seventeenth-century scientific thought and political critique as the British monarchy collapsed under the rushing sword of Oliver Cromwell.

Most relevant is how Milton depicts the fall of Eve.

Milton lays the groundwork for Eve’s fall in Book Five, when the archangel Raphael visits his friend Adam to tell him about the structure of the universe. Raphael has read his Aquinas: like proponents of superintelligence, he endorses the great chain of being. Here’s his response to Adam when the “Patriarch of mankind” offers the angel mere human food:

O Adam, one Almightie is, from whom All things proceed, and up to him return, If not deprav’d from good, created all Such to perfection, one first matter all, Indu’d with various forms various degrees Of substance, and in things that live, of life; But more refin’d, more spiritous, and pure, As neerer to him plac’t or neerer tending Each in thir several active Sphears assignd, Till body up to spirit work, in bounds Proportiond to each kind.  So from the root Springs lighter the green stalk, from thence the leaves More aerie, last the bright consummate floure Spirits odorous breathes: flours and thir fruit Mans nourishment, by gradual scale sublim’d To vital Spirits aspire, to animal, To intellectual, give both life and sense, Fansie and understanding, whence the Soule Reason receives, and reason is her being, Discursive, or Intuitive; discourse Is oftest yours, the latter most is ours, Differing but in degree, of kind the same.

Raphael basically charts the great chain of being in the passage. Angels think faster than people, they reason in intuitions while we have to break things down analytically to have any hope of communicating with one another and collaborating. Daniel Kahnemann’s partition between discursive and intuitive thought in Thinking, Fast and Slow had an analogue in the seventeenth century, where philosophers distinguished the slow, composite, discursive knowledge available in mathematical proofs from the fast, intuitive, social insights that enabled some to size up a room and be the wittiest guest at a cocktail party.

Raphael explains to Adam that, through patient, diligent reasoning and exploration, he and Eve will come to be more like angels, gradually scaling the hierarchy of being to ennoble themselves. But on the condition that they follow the one commandment never to eat the fruit from the forbidden tree, a rule that escapes reason, that is a dictum intended to remain unexplained, a test of obedience.

But Eve is more curious than that and Satan uses her curiosity to his advantage. In Book Nine, Milton fashions Satan in his trappings as snake as a master orator who preys upon Eve’s curiosity to persuade her to eat of the forbidden fruit. After failing to exploit her vanity, he changes strategies and exploits her desire for knowledge, basing his argument on an analogy up the great chain of being:

O Sacred, Wise, and Wisdom-giving Plant, Mother of Science, Now I feel thy Power Within me cleere, not onely to discerne Things in thir Causes, but to trace the wayes Of highest Agents, deemd however wise. Queen of this Universe, doe not believe Those rigid threats of Death; ye shall not Die: How should ye? by the Fruit? it gives you Life To Knowledge? By the Threatner, look on mee, Mee who have touch’d and tasted, yet both live, And life more perfet have attaind then Fate Meant mee, by ventring higher then my Lot.   That ye should be as Gods, since I as Man, Internal Man, is but proportion meet, I of brute human, yee of human Gods. So ye shall die perhaps, by putting off Human, to put on Gods, death to be wisht, Though threat’nd, which no worse then this can bring.

Satan exploits Eve’s mental model of the great chain of being to tempt her to eat the forbidden apple. Mere animals, snakes can’t talk. A talking snake, therefore, must have done something to cheat the great chain of being, to elevate itself to the status of man. So too, argues Satan, can Eve shortcut her growth from man to angel by eating the forbidden fruit. The fall of mankind rests upon our propensity to rely on analogy. May the defenders of causal inference rejoice.[5]

The point is that we’ve had a complex relationship with our own rationality for a long time. That Judeo-Christian thought has a particular way of personifying the artifacts and precipitates of abstract thoughts into moral systems. That, since the scientific revolution, science and religion have split from one another but continue to cross paths, if only because they both rest, as Carlo Rovelli so beautifully expounds in his lyrical prose, on our wonder, on our drive to go beyond the immediately visible, on our desire to understand the world, on our need for connection, community, and love.

But do we want to limit our imaginations to such a stale hierarchy of being? Why not be bolder and more futuristic? Why not forget gods and angels and, instead, recognize these abstract precipitates as the byproducts of cognition? Why not open our imaginations to appreciate the radically different intelligence of plants and rocks, the mysterious capabilities of photosynthesis that can make matter from sun and water (WTF?!?), the communication that occurs in the deep roots of trees, the eyesight that octopuses have all down their arms, the silent and chameleon wisdom of the slit canyons in the southwest? Why not challenge ourselves to greater empathy, to the unique beauty available to beings who die, capsized by senescence and always inclining forward in time?

Why not free ourselves of the need for big picture narratives and celebrate the fact that the future is far more complex than we’ll ever be able to predict?

How can we do this morally? How can we abandon ourselves to what will come and retain responsibility? What might we build if we mimic animal superintelligence instead of getting stuck in history’s linear march of progress?

I believe there would be beauty. And wild inspiration.

[1] This note should have been after the first sentence, but I wanted to preserve the rhetorical force of the bare sentences. My friend Stephanie Schmidt, a professor at SUNY Buffalo, uses the concept of foundational narratives extensively in her work about colonialism. She focuses on how cultures subjugated to colonial power assimilate and subvert the narratives imposed upon them.

[2] Yesterday I had the pleasure of hearing a talk by the always-inspiring Martin Snelgrove about how to design hardware to reduce energy when using trained algorithms to execute predictions in production machine learning. The basic operations undergirding machine learning are addition and multiplication: we’d assume multiplying takes more energy than adding, because multiplying is adding in sequence. But Martin showed how it all boils down to how far electrons need to travel. The broad-stroke narrative behind why GPUs are better for deep learning is that they shuffle electrons around criss-cross structures that look like matrices as opposed to putting them into the linear straight-jacket of the CPU. But the geometry can get more fine-grained and complex, as the 256×256 array in Google’s TPU shows. I’m keen to dig into the most elegant geometry for designing for Bayesian inference and sampling from posterior distributions.

[3] Technology culture loves to fetishize failure. Jeremy Epstein helped me realize that failure is only fun if it’s the mid point of a narrative that leads to a turn of events ending with triumphant success. This is complex. I believe in growth mindsets like Ray Dalio proposes in his Principles: there is real, transformative power in shifting how our minds interpret the discomfort that accompanies learning or stretching oneself to do something not yet mastered. I jump with joy at the opportunity to transform the paralyzing energy of anxiety into the empowering energy of growth, and believe its critical that more women adopt this mindset so they don’t hold themselves back from positions they don’t believe they are qualified for. Also, it makes total sense that we learn much, much more from failures than we do from successes, in science, where it’s important to falsify, as in any endeavor where we have motivation to change something and grow. I guess what’s important here is that we don’t reduce our empathy for the very real pain of being in the midst of failure, of not feeling like one doesn’t have what other have, of being outside the comfort of the bell curve, of the time it takes to outgrow the inheritance and pressure from the last generation and the celebrations of success. Worth exploring.

[4] One is from Tim Urban, as in this Google Talk about superintelligence. I really, really like Urban’s blog. His recent post about choosing a career is remarkably good and his Ted talk on procrastination is one of my favorite things on the internet. But his big picture narrative about AI irks me.

[5] Milton actually wrote a book about logic and was even a logic tutor. It’s at once incredibly boring and incredibly interesting stuff.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

My Problem with OOO or, Reflections on a McNugget

June 28, 2018 - 11:32
Tags:  new materialism, essays, museums, environment, Environmentalism

After spending a few days at Elsewhere, a museum set in a former thrift store in Greensboro, North Carolina, I was asked to select a single object from the teeming mountains of stuff. The idea was to hone in on something that moved me and write about why. I imagined I’d choose something more sophisticated, more abstract. A scrap of fabric or an unnamed, enigmatic form. An object that would prompt reflections on color, line, and light. And instead it’s this. A fucking chicken McNugget. With a face. To be more precise, a “McNugget buddy,” a plastic toy that was included in McDonald’s Happy Meals in 1988. This one is naked, his (her?) scuba mask, firefighter’s mask or gunslinger’s belt and lasso long lost to the ravages of time. But even McNude, the nugget captivated me. I spotted it peeping out from among piles of objects, beckoning me, calling forth the perverse innocence of a childhood in the 1980s, a time before I knew how little chicken was in those nuggets, before I knew that whatever meat was in there was processed in horrific conditions, washed with ammonia and plied with chemicals to give it its chicken-like appearance and flavor.

Photo George Scheer

Isn’t it strange to process a live animal into a nugget, something utterly inorganic, only to reanimate it for children as a sympathetic friend or action hero? Why anthropomorphize the nugget? Why turn it into “a buddy?” I guess it makes some kind of marketing sense, lodging the chicken nugget deep into the child’s psyche so that she craves the food, the toy, the food-toy as companion. The smiling McNugget stands courageously against the army of undesirable adult food: the menacing broccoli, the duplicitous bran muffin, the odiferous fish. With no eyelids to close or limbs that might allow him to run away, this plastic warrior is on constant watch. And of course there is also the logic of the set or series, motivating the consumer-child to collect each variation on the nugget theme. But this particular traveler is alone, washed up on Elsewhere’s shores like a relic of a fast-food obsessed people who perished from their bad habits before their successors could discover kale and quinoa.

***

My childhood featured plenty of Happy Meals and an impressive number of chicken nuggets. My mother didn’t cook. More to the point, she couldn’t. What she did do was perceive agency in all kinds of objects—her schizophrenia made her think the television could see her and that pillows contained listening devices. Medication meant that she suffered fewer delusions and psychotic breaks, but the illness nonetheless kept her from doing many things— driving and cooking among them. And so, during the week, my hard-working father came home from the office and piled his kids into the car to head out for Chinese food or pizza or cheese burgers and chicken nuggets. I haven’t eaten at a McDonald’s in at least two decades, but I can still remember the smell of the windowless, uncanny playscape at our local franchise—the smooth metallic floor of the Hamburgler house and the thin, matted green carpet that I suppose was meant to look like grass.

It seems cruel to me now, that while I was being encouraged to “use my imagination” and bring life to the dolls and toys and rocks and leaves of my childhood, my mother was being pathologized for doing the same. I can enumerate all the reasons why my acts of animation were different than my mother’s, but I also feel the distinction start to slip away. When I talked to my Happy Meal toys or my dolls, did I fully understand that they were only inert plastic? If not, how and when did I outgrow my magical thinking? We’re inundated with animate objects—from the McNugget buddy to Siri to self-driving cars —but expected to effortlessly police the line between projected agency and real consciousness. If all objects hold something back from us, if they retreat from our perception and withdraw from description, as scholars of object-oriented ontology have argued, then who are we to say what secrets the television or the pillow may hold? Or if we disavow such thinking, we might instead argue that the brain is itself an object and a dip or a spike in a neurochemical makes the television’s sight wholly real to the person who believes the screen watches her.

***

But wait. Schizophrenia is a violent, devastating illness. It imprisoned my mother—a talented, funny, beautiful woman—in her own mind for most of her life. There is a meaningful difference between a child’s imagination of a doll that lives, an academic’s speculation on how matter acts independent of human will, and a diseased mind that believes objects are alive and conspiring. And so, when scholars talk about agentic objects, I can’t help but resist. I understand that objects work upon us and that even at the molecular level, they’re doing things on their own. But before I concede that an object has agency, that “things can thing” in some mystical way, I’m stopped by the painful memory of just how damaging, how paralyzing a real belief in this idea can be. So while I am sympathetic to any kind of thinking that urges humans to be more caring or more ethical stewards of the objects and environment around them, it’s the care that interests me most. After all, the McNugget buddy never cared for me, but it did congeal my parents’ care and my own attempts at ordering the strange world around me within its plastic contours.

And somewhere, someone else cared enough about a mass-manufactured Happy Meal toy to set it down an unknown path that lead to Elsewhere. When I saw it, peeking out of the material swells rising on the shelves of the museum, I recognized it, I found it familiar. But it didn’t find me. It’s tempting to say that something intrinsic to the object caused me to write these reflections, to disclose this personal backstory that I’ve never shared in writing before. But I’d insist otherwise. It’s just a piece of plastic, what Roland Barthes called a “disgraced material.”[1] If there’s something about this object that moved me, it’s the place where I found it and the knowledge that the care of unknown people had brought it to this place. Somewhere, Elsewhere, away from scholarly expectations and my anxieties about whether or not I can meet them, I was able to choose an object—even a tacky, embarrassing one—that makes meaning for me. But even if the McNugget Buddies had personalities, jobs, talents, and a penchant for rolling around naked in barbeque sauce, their revival depends on a place like Elsewhere and their agency on a person like me.

 

[1] Roland Barthes, Mythologies (New York: Hill and Wang, 2012), 194.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Egg-hunting in Baghdad

May 24, 2018 - 16:15
Tags:  Saddam Hussein, Baghdad, Iraq, Gulf war, Kuwait

February, 1991

 

Since war broke out, our daily routine has changed drastically. My morning shower, for instance, was now reduced to pouring a few cups of water over myself. The first splash of the near-freezing water left me gasping in pain and trembling, even after I’d finished washing and left the bathroom. Each cup took a long time to collect from the low, dripping faucet in our garden. All the taps inside the house had gone dry.

Every morning, rain or shine, I ventured out into the cold, putting on as much clothing as I could and carrying empty plastic containers that I’d place alternately under the rusty faucet. As little as two or three liters was a treasure for me that I held up triumphantly and hurried to empty into a larger container in the kitchen, and went out again to accumulate more droplets, and so on. I still recall the panic I felt when the dripping ceased one day, and how I was so ecstatic to see it resume its extremely faint ooze that I jumped up in the air in celebration. I also remember the vicious allergy attacks that left me with itchy swollen eyes and a runny nose, and the painful headaches that ensued. I tried to distract myself by indulging in recollections of my decadent baths in the good old days; the way warm water sprang effortlessly from the showerhead to create rich foam and release soothing scented vapors in the air.

My sinful fantasies would often be interrupted by the noise from a passing horse-drawn cart that sold kerosene; I had to drop everything, run to wave it down, and negotiate with the driver for a lower price on his precious commodity. Or the persistent banging on our door by a visiting neighbor, who wanted to share his or her confusion and fear, as well as the latest news they’d heard on this or that radio station. The daylight hours passed very quickly. Before we knew it, night had fallen, signaling another period of air raids and missile attacks, whose intensity varied from one night to the next for reasons unbeknownst to anyone.

Our evening meal consisted of bread and whatever dairy products—mainly canned cheese—remained in our pantry. It was quite different from lunch, where we usually had chicken, cooked on the kerosene heater in our living room. After a week or so of power outages, the freezers were hardly cold and their stock of meat started changing taste, as did our bread. The shops had run out of proper flour and all bakeries were now selling weird-tasting and -smelling products. We still had to line up for hours in front of the neighborhood’s baker’s window to get only a few loaves. That was the point where we decided it was time to end our months-long boycott of all the food stolen from Kuwait that had taken over the Iraqi market shelves after the invasion. The price has been paid, we reasoned. Beggars, as the saying goes, can’t be choosers. Our only remaining choice was between life and death. It’s ironic that we ended up spreading our repulsive gray-brown bread—rumored to have sawdust in the dough—with Danish Lurpak butter and fancy European marmalades that were sold for only a fraction of their original price. We had our shame-dipped snacks while listening to the news updates on BBC, RMC, and VOA. After that, we’d retire to our presumably safe shelter, that is, my parents’ bedroom on the ground floor, unroll our mattresses and struggle to get some sleep despite being rattled by consecutive explosions that hardly eased off before the break of dawn.

I almost forgot that I was a university student, much less that I harbored any future plans or vocational ambitions. My only concern was to provide myself and my family with enough water and food to keep us going and withstand another day of this ruthless war. Every once in a while, we’d hear the popping noise of shooting, accompanied by loud wailing screams, announcing a fallen soldier’s arrival home. Neighbors rushed to support the bereaved family and offer their condolences. People were keen to show up at the three-day mourning session to discuss the rumors circulating about a coming overthrow of the Ba’ath regime in Iraq and its prospective ramifications on our lives and future. Some seemed optimistic and argued that it could bring our long-awaited freedom. The majority, including me, were apprehensive and decided to keep their vigil until the storm had passed.

Walking became my favorite pastime in those confusing times. As soon as I’d finished my daily chores, I was off to the streets to walk for long miles and scrutinize whichever grocery store I found for fresh vegetables or fruits, even if that entailed consuming an extra amount of the hard-earned water to wash them. We’d finished listening to the news bulletins on the radio one night, and were waiting for a round of concentrated shelling to end, when a thunderous roar shook the ground, and a massive flash turned the darkness into light. The communications center that was less than a kilometer away from us had been targeted. The window frames clattered and their taped-up glass cracked. We instinctively cowered and covered our heads with our arms, expecting the roof to come tumbling down at any given moment.

A profound silence prevailed after what seemed like forever. With blanched faces and shocked gazes, we rose up slowly, but our adrenaline-laden bodies kept shaking long after the danger had passed. What if the bomb had missed its target by only a few hundred meters? The next morning, I went upstairs to check and clean up the broken glass in my room. I looked through the window and noticed a disturbing vacuum in the skyline. The tall, steel-structured antenna tower had disappeared. I hurried outside and saw many flocking toward the location to inspect the damage. A hill of rubble, topped with a crushed tower was all that remained of the center, built a few years before by a foreign construction company. The air-raid siren that perched on the building and had hardly stopped howling since the beginning of the war—not this time, though!—was silenced forever. We had to seek out meat alternatives for protein. Eggs had become scarce due to the high demand. It was an exceptionally cold winter, and they needn’t be kept in the fridges, which we now used as storage cabinets, leaving their doors open to prevent mold.

One afternoon, while walking in our neighborhood, I stumbled upon a man selling his chickens’ eggs on the street. I unhesitatingly purchased all the remaining cartons without really thinking about how to transport such a valuable yet annoyingly fragile catch to our house, a few kilometers away. I only realized the bad situation I’d stupidly gotten myself into when the vendor stacked the cartons, one on top of the other, on my arms. I started walking cautiously and had to stop when passing drivers unrolled their windows to ask where I got the eggs from and how much I’d paid for them. I would have been happy to trade one of the cartons for a short drive, but was too embarrassed to suggest it. I gritted my teeth and kept walking until, finally, I got home with stiffened, nearly paralyzed arms. When my family helped me lay down my heavy load on our dining table I screamed in agony. Nonetheless, the smiles I saw on everybody’s faces made the excruciating trip worthwhile. I decided to reward myself for completing my impossible task with a comfortable night’s sleep in my bed, which I’d totally abandoned. My weeks of sleeping on the floor had taken their toll on my bones and joints. I threw myself on the fluffy surface and basked in its smoothness for a while and then covered my whole body with a warm duvet and a blanket. The slightly slower-than-usual pace of the evening shelling felt reassuring, and I fell asleep right away.

Abruptly awakened by a bad dream after just a few hours, I dragged myself into the bathroom to wet my face with some of the remaining water in the plastic bucket on the floor when the walls lit up and the earth shook under my feet. I held tight to the sides of the sink to avoid falling, and heard the noise of more windows breaking. They’d bombarded the nearby communications center for the second time. Once more, we had survived. I should have felt relieved, but I didn’t. What’s the point of targeting a destroyed building? I didn’t visit the hit site. What was there to see other than the same pile of debris? I made up my mind that I was going to sleep in my bed no matter what. Death does not discriminate and we cannot hide from it, I was now convinced. … My spirits plummeted visibly, which affected the duties I was expected to perform. I was exhausted and could barely muster enough energy to collect our daily water from the rusty dripping faucet in our garden. How long will this last?

A translated excerpt from Saddam and I, and the Stockholm Syndrome by Ali Shakir (Dar Elthaqafa Elgedeeda, 2018). The book tackles Saddam’s growing posthumous popularity among thousands of young Arabs and Iraqis, and is told in two parts: The first, a memoir of growing up in Ba’ath-ruled Baghdad and witnessing Hussein’s rise to power and its impact on people’s lives over nearly three decades of his reign. The second part begins with his controversial execution in 2006, and attempts to track the symptoms and roots of longing for the days of dictatorship; a phenomenon observed not only in Iraq but also in other Arab countries that were, and still are, subjected to the violent vicissitudes of what became known as the Arab Spring. The above translation first appeared in ArabLit on the 27th anniversary of the Gulf War.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Money's Laws of Motion

May 7, 2018 - 14:52
Tags:  MMT, Marxism, political economy, monetary theory

Epicurus supposed that even in the midst of the void the atoms declined slightly from the straight line, and from this, he said, arose freedom.

-Pierre Bayle, quoted by Karl Marx

Money is no object.

-Stephanie Kelton

In previous contributions to Arcade, I have drawn sharp distinctions between the heterodox school of economics known as Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) and the Marxist tradition that dominates the critical humanities. My intention was neither to flatly oppose MMT and Marxism, nor to wholly discount the latter’s impulses and insights. Rather, I sought to illuminate MMT’s expansive conception of money as a limitless public instrument and develop its transformative implications for contemporary thought and practice. In so doing, I criticized Marxism’s preoccupation with decentralized exchange relations for barring such possibilities from leftist critique and contestation.

Working out these claims, I set aside the complex entanglements that link MMT's and Marxism's histories and methods. In this essay, I explore some of these entanglements and lay bare the divergent ontological commitments that, on my analysis, fundamentally separate MMT’s critical project from the Marxist one.

Viewed from afar, MMT and Marxism appear opposed. Contemporary Marxists such as The New School's Anwar Shaikh reject MMT and, typically, MMT is disassociated from Marxism when presented to the public. In truth, however, MMT and Marxism share an entangled history that thwarts neat distinctions and oppositions.

For one, Karl Marx’s intervention stands at the origin of critical political economy. Protesting that the modern money systems that mainstream economics deem natural and self-correcting are in truth politically constructed and destabilizing, Marxism functions as a philosophical torchbearer for the heterodox post-Keynesian tradition from which MMT arises. What is more, post-Keynesianism itself comprises a kaleidoscopic conflagration of Keynesian and Marxist impulses, which cannot be sharply disarticulated.

In terms of direct influence, MMT owes many specific insights to the history of Marxist thought. MMT relies heavily on post-Keynesian theories of effective demand and stock-flow consistency, both of which are traceable to the second and third volumes of Marx’s Capital. Moreover, MMTers such as Bill Mitchell, Mathew Forstater, and Peter Cooper regularly draw upon Marxist concepts and arguments in their writings, paying express heed to Marxism’s ongoing relevance for MMT.

Meanwhile, post-Keynesian circuitist theory has increasingly prioritized state credit money in their analyses of the monetary circuit (M-C-M) outlined in the first volume of Capital. Especially interesting in this regard are European Marxist circuitists like Riccardo Bellofiore who overtly utilize MMT’s insights. Forging novel connections between Marxism, post-Keynesianism, and MMT, Bellofiore and his followers continue to uncover important genealogical and theoretical linkages among these projects.

One might say far more about the linkages and discordances that riddle heterodox economics. For the time being, however, I indicate the folly of treating MMT and Marxism as unrelated or categorically opposed. To do so is to overlook post-Keynesianism’s paramount role within the history of heterodox economics and to repress the contested field of inquiry to which both MMT and Marxism belong.

Still, when it comes to questions of social ontology, it becomes necessary to reckon with what genuinely distinguishes MMT from Marxism and thus what cuts through the genealogical entwinements sketched above. Generally speaking, scholarly and public debates skirt around MMT’s and Marxism’s competing ontological commitments. Instead, they argue over the technical operations of political economy and the political responses various crises necessitate. Upon closer inspection, however, it turns out that tacit ontological divisions structure such contests from start to finish.

Ontology is embarrassing. It is embarrassing because it announces plainly what is uncouth to admit in ordinary discourse. Yet it is especially embarrassing because it means exposing the unexamined desires that drive everyday discursive struggles. For these reasons, ontological claims are often met with skepticism, disavowal, or scorn.

Nonetheless, I wish to risk articulating outright the underlying rift that cleaves MMT and Marxism. Marxism attributes the greatest degree of being to immediate material relations, imagining monetary abstraction as a volatilization and estrangement of conscious local associations. By contrast, MMT hangs collective existence on a community's political center and maintains that money is an inexhaustible government instrument for socializing relations of production and distribution at a distance. Instead of condemning money for disrupting and evacuating otherwise self-subsistent local activities, MMT treats a people's remote obligations to a centralized polity as ontologically prior to any immediate association and sees monetary abstraction as a powerful public mechanism for variously coordinating and enlarging such obligations. Hence, while Marxism assumes that money is a private, alienating, and crisis-ridden exchange relationship that ought to be overcome, MMT holds money to be a boundless public utility that, though by no means untroubled, is well-equipped to actualize radical collectivist ends.

This ontological cleavage becomes clearest in the ways that Marxism and MMT explain employment and unemployment. For the Marxist, employment comes into being through private wage contracts between firms and workers. Unemployment is then understood principally as a negative relation, functioning as a constitutive excess that reciprocally shapes capitalist production and exchange from the outside. For the MMTer, however, unemployment is a positive relation that results from the tax obligation. As Rohan Grey and Raúl Carrillo describe it, "the state creates unemployment by imposing a non-reciprocal liability (i.e. a tax) that can only be satisfied by obtaining its tokens (i.e. tax credits)." No unemployed person sits outside this public obligation. And since government is both the source of money and the cause of unemployment, it alone is ultimately responsible for determining the employment level.

As I have already noted, some Marxists embrace MMT's grounding of money in centralized governance and a handful of MMTers work in a Marxist idiom. Yet beneath this exchange of ideas looms an irreconcilable split over political economy’s center of gravity. That is, despite their shared histories and convergences, Marxism and MMT offer two very different Gestalts of the macro-economic order.

Perhaps the best way to make sense these contrasting pictures is to take seriously the turn of phrase center of gravity. For all its dubiousness, Marxism has adopted a literal and curiously pious relation to physical gravitation. Strewn with gravitropic metaphors meant to exhibit the value-form’s concealed “laws of motion,” Marxist criticism tends to subordinate macro-economic reality to material gravity, whereby far-flung abstractions always come down to material interactions between particular individuals.

In The German Ideology, for instance, Marx repeatedly insists that critical political economy must attend to production's "earthly" bases. He ridicules German idealists for fleeing from social reality, arguing that they proceed as if material gravity were merely a superstition. And he characterizes communism as the impulse to gather abstractly dispersed social activities back to their immediate tellurian origins. “The reality that communism creates," Marx writes, "is precisely the true basis for rendering it impossible that anything should exist independently of individuals, insofar as reality is nevertheless only the product of the preceding intercourse of individuals.”

To be sure, Marx's own critical methodology is comprised of abstract concepts and complex dialectical reasoning. Yet, for Marx, this abstractive method is no end in itself. It is, rather, a way to expose the terrestrial injustices precipitated by money's abstract movements. It also means to make way for a directly associated, free society that is liberated from monetary alienation and its diremptive phantoms.

Eschewing Marxism’s gravitropic metaphysics, MMT locates the center of macro-economic activity in an abstract legal rapport between the currency issuing center and the body politic that depends upon the currency to physically survive and thrive. On this model, the totality issues from money’s governing center and unfolds as an interlocking cascade of mediation that conditions economic life as a whole. “[T]he hierarchy of money can be thought of as a multitiered pyramid where the tiers represent promises with differing degrees of acceptability,” explains Stephanie Kelton (née Bell). “As the most acceptable money in the hierarchy, the state’s debts serve as both a means of payment and a medium of exchange in private transactions.” Despite its “ideal” status, money’s topological hierarchy is no second-order phenomenon, according to MMT. Money is not a mere “expression” or “representation” of aggregate private value creation, "ascend[ing] from earth to heaven," as Marx asserts in The German Ideology. Instead, MMT supposes that money’s featherweight fiscal center and macro-economic cascade together mobilize a shared material horizon of production and distribution.

There is no treatise on physical gravitation in the MMT corpus. The term “gravity” appears nowhere in MMT’s myriad publications, as far as I have seen. Yet a careful reading of MMT’s texts reveals a subtle inversion in the topological relationship between the ideal and the real that not-so-subtly downgrades gravity’s metaphysical import for critical political economy.

Like Marxism, MMT situates value in the construction and maintenance of a collective material reality. It accordingly rejects Neoclassical utility theory, which roots value in the play of individual preferences. Only, in contrast to Marxism, MMT contends that the production of value is conditioned by money’s abstract fiscal capacity and the hierarchy of mediation it supports. MMT hardly dismisses the pull of physical gravitation on human existence. Rather, it implicitly de-prioritizes gravity’s causality in political and economic processes, showing how the ideal conditions the real via money’s distributed pyramidal structure.

As a consequence of this inversion, MMT lends greater acuity to economic analysis. Still more important, it radically expands the political horizon concerning what is possible under a modern money economy. Indeed, by abandoning physical gravitation as the origin and telos of politics, MMT keys the struggle for political power to a commodious public abstraction, while refusing one-sided denunciations of money as some inevitable fall from grace.

Such ontological distinctions matter for critical work in the humanities. Humanists take pride in scrutinizing the terms and logics that make historical realities intelligible. Frequently, however, when humanists take on the history and potential futures of monetary relations, Marxism’s gravitropic materialism severely contracts the voluminous topology that MMT strives to hold open.

Take the recent work of David Harvey, “Marx, Capital, and the Madness of Economic Reason,” a talk based on his forthcoming book of the same title. Harvey has made important contributions to the overlapping realms of humanities scholarship and social criticism, from his historical-geographical critiques of modernity to his widely-read examinations of postmodern ideology and neoliberal political economy. I have little doubt that Harvey has much to offer us in the future. What worries me about Harvey’s latest project, however, is that it doubles-down on the Marxist laws of motion. In so doing, it blocks the capacious macro-economic Gestalt that MMT makes perceptible, along with the radical political possibilities it makes immediately actionable.

Rather than affirming state spending as the macroeconomic backbone of production and distribution and a powerful weapon for political transformation, Harvey deems decentralized private exchange the threshold of value’s realization and public money as mere “anti-value” and “fictitious capital.” As a result, he imagines the contemporary money relation as an unruly global flux and renders government money just as reckless and ineffectual as private speculation.

Worst of all is the explicit metaphor that anchors Harvey’s forthcoming publication: the water cycle. Appealing to a punishingly gravitropic image, Harvey at once metaphorizes and diagrams the monetary circuit as a water cycle that is spiraling out of control. Drawing on G. W. F. Hegel’s terminology, he brands money’s endless unraveling a “bad infinity,” an infinite regress that leads nowhere but into further crisis. With this, Harvey surmises that our collective future becomes like so many underwater mortgages after the 2007-8 financial crash: foreclosed.

In a sense Harvey is correct: contemporary neoliberalism is grim. Seen through the eyes of MMT, however, the future hardly looks foreclosed. Private debt can become a “bad infinity.” But public money is the best kind of infinity and it constitutes the center around which this forsaken system turns.

Marxism is a rich, heterogeneous project that continues to bear fruit across disciplines. Yet I fear that, unless critical humanists begin to relinquish their own gravitropic attachments, and learn to perceive and think otherwise, Harvey’s bleak diagnosis will almost certainly turn into a self-fulfilling prophesy.

An earlier version first appeared on the site Radical Political Economy.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

re: F@ck Work?

May 7, 2018 - 14:52
Tags:  economics, Culture and social change, Black Lives Matter, justice, capitalism, Universal Basic Income, Jobs Guarantee

James Livingston has responded to my critique of his Aeon essay, “Fuck Work.” His response was published in the Spanish magazine Contexto y Acción. One can find an English translation here. What follows is my reply:

Livingston and I share many political aims. We each wish to reverse wealth polarization, to alleviate systemic poverty, and to enable diverse forms of human flourishing. The professor and I disagree, however, on the nature of contemporary economic reality. As a consequence, we propose very different political programs for realizing the sort of just and prosperous society we both desire.

In his rejoinder to my critique, Livingston proudly affirms his commitment to Liberalism and makes a Liberal understanding of political economy the basis of his proposed alternative to the neoliberal catastrophe. Deeming government an intrinsically authoritarian institution, he situates civil society as a realm of self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The problem, as he formulates it, is that while capitalist innovation has made it possible to increasingly automate production, the capitalist class has robbed us of our purchasing power and preserved a punishing wage relation. This prevents us from enjoying the fruits of automated labor. Livingston’s solution is to reject an outmoded Protestant work ethic; tax the unproductive corporate profits that fuel financial markets; and redistribute this money in the form of a Universal Basic Income (UBI). The result: each member of civil society will be liberated to associate, labor, or play as they please.

Like Livingston, the left has long flirted with Liberal dreams that autonomous and self-regulating associations might one day replace the difficulties of political governance. After the Great Recession, these dreams have returned. They imagine algorithms and robots to be politically neutral. They seek a life of shared luxury through automatically dispensed welfare payments. This sounds nice at first blush. However, such reveries are at best naive and, at worst, politically defeatist and self-destructive. Abandoned and abused by neoliberal governance, today’s pro-UBI left doubles down on neoliberalism’s do-it-yourself caretaking. It envisions delimited forms of monetary redistribution as the only means to repair the social order. Above all, it allows anti-authoritarianism to overshadow the charge of social provisioning.  

Livingston’s articulation of this dream is especially fierce. As such, it crystallizes UBI’s central contradiction: Demanding a no-strings-attached welfare system, the left seeks to cut government out of social provisioning while at the same time relying on government for regular financial support. This position, which fails to rethink the structure of social participation as a whole, leaves disquieting political questions unanswered: How will we provide adequate human and material resources for our growing elderly populations? How can we meaningfully restructure social production to address climate change? How do we preserve a place for the arts outside of competitive MFA programs and speculative art markets?

Such questions are unforgivingly realistic, not pie-in-the-sky musings. And no amount of volunteerism, goodwill, or generous welfare payments can adequately meet these demands. Indeed, only government can afford to mobilize the persons and materials needed to answer such demands. And while algorithms and robots are powerful social instruments, we cannot rely on automation to overcome extant logics of discrimination and exclusion. To do so is to forget that social injustice is politically conditioned and that government alone holds the monetary capacity to transform economic life in its entirety.   

This brings me to Modern Monetary Theory (MMT). Far from an “obscure intellectual trend,” MMT is a prominent heterodox school of political economy that emerged from post-Keynesian economics and has lately influenced the economic platforms of Bernie Sanders, Jeremy Corbyn, and Spain’s United Left. For MMT, money is not a private token that states amass and hemorrhage. Rather, it is a boundless government instrument that can easily serve the needs of the entire community. International monetary agreements such the Eurozone’s Maastricht Treaty may impose artificial limits on fiscal spending, but these are, MMT argues, political constraints. They are not economically inevitable and can immediately be dissolved. In truth, every sovereign polity can afford to take care of its people; most governments simply choose not to provide for everyone and feign that their hands are tied.

To be sure, Liberalism has debated the “designation and distribution of rival goods,” as Livingston explains. In doing so, however, it has overlooked how macroeconomic governance conditions the production of these goods in the first place. MMT, by contrast, stresses money’s creative role in enabling productive activity and places government's limitless spending powers at the heart of this process.

In lieu of Liberal “redistribution” via taxation, MMT calls for a politics of “predistribution.” Redistributive politics mitigate wealth disparity by purportedly transferring money from rich to poor. This is a false and deeply metaphysical gesture, however, since it mistakes the monetary relation for a finite resource instead of embracing government’s actual spending capacities. MMT’s predistributive politics, meanwhile, insist that government can never run out of money and that meaningful transformation requires intervening directly in the institutions and laws that structure economic activity. MMT does not imply a crude determinism in which government immediately commands production and distribution. Rather, it politicizes fiscal spending and the banking system, which together underwrite the supposedly autonomous civil society that Livingston celebrates.

MMT maintains, moreover, that because UBI is not sufficiently productive, it is a passive and ultimately inflationary means to remedy our social and environmental problems. It thus recommends a proactive and politicized commitment to public employment through a voluntary Job Guarantee. Federally funded yet operated by local governments and nonprofits, such a system would fund communal and ecological projects that the private sector refuses to pursue. It would stabilize prices by maintaining aggregate purchasing power and productive activity during market downturns. What is more, by eliminating forced unemployment, it would eradicate systemic poverty, increase labor’s bargaining power, and improve everyone’s working conditions. In this way, a Job Guarantee would function as a form of targeted universalism: In improving the lives of particular groups, such a program would transform the whole of economic life from the bottom up.

Unlike the Job Guarantee, UBI carries no obligation to create or maintain public infrastructures. It relinquishes capital-intensive projects to the private sector. It banks on the hope that meager increases in purchasing power will solve the systemic crises associated with un- and underemployment.

Let us, then, abandon UBI’s “end of work” hysteria and confront the problem of social provisioning head on. There is no escape from our broken reality. We do better to seize present power structures and transform collective participation, rather than to reduce politics to cartoonish oppositions between liberty and tyranny, leisure and toil. Technology is marvelous. It is no substitute, however, for governance. And while civil society may be a site of creativity and struggle, it has limited spending abilities and will always require external support.  

It is essential, therefore, to construct an adequate welfare system. On this matter, Livingston and I agree. But Livingston’s retreat from governance strikes me as both juvenile and self-sabotaging. Such thinking distracts the left from advancing an effective political program and building the robust public sector we need.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

F@ck Work?

May 7, 2018 - 14:52
Tags:  economics, Culture and social change, Black Lives Matter, justice, capitalism

In the wake of Donald Trump’s alarming election to the White House, historian James Livingston published an essay in Aeon magazine with the somewhat provocative title “Fuck Work.” The piece encapsulates the argument spelled out in Livingston’s latest book, No More Work: Why Full Employment is a Bad Idea (University of North Carolina Press, 2016).

In both his book and the Aeon essay, Livingston sets out to address several overlapping crises: an alienating and now exhausted “work ethic” that crystallized during the Protestant Reformation; forty years of rampant underemployment, declining wages, and widening inequality; a corresponding surge in financial speculation and drop in productive investment and aggregate demand; and a post-2008 climate of cultural resentment and political polarization, which has fueled populist uprisings from Left to Right.

What the present catastrophe shows, according to Livingston’s diagnosis, is the ultimate failure of the marketplace to provision and distribute social labor. What’s worse, the future of work looks dismal. Citing the works of Silicon Valley cyber-utopians and orthodox economists at Oxford and M.I.T., Livingston insists that algorithms and robotization will reduce the workforce by half within twenty years and that this is unstoppable, like some perverse natural process. “The measurable trends of the past half-century, and the plausible projections for the next half-century, are just too empirically grounded to dismiss as dismal science or ideological hokum,” he concludes. “They look like the data on climate change—you can deny them if you like, but you’ll sound like a moron when you do.”  

Livingston’s response to this “empirical,” “measurable,” and apparently undeniable doomsday scenario is to embrace the collapse of working life without regret. “Fuck work” is Livingston’s slogan for moving beyond the demise of work, transforming a negative condition into a positive sublation of collective life.

In concrete terms, this means implementing progressive taxation to capture corporate earnings, and then redistributing this money through a “Universal Basic Income,” what in his book is described as a “minimum annual income for every citizen.” Such a massive redistribution of funds would sever the historical relationship between work and wages, in Livingston’s view, freeing un- and underemployed persons to pursue various personal and communal ends. Such a transformation is imminently affordable, since there are plenty of corporate funds to seize and redirect to those in need. The deeper problem, as Livingston sees it, is a moral one. We must rebuff the punishing asceticism of the Protestant work ethic and, instead, reorganize the soul on more free and capacious bases.    

Lest we get the wrong idea, Livingston maintains that social labor will not simply disappear in a world organized by a tax-funded Universal Basic Income. Rather, he envisions an increasingly automated future, where leisure is our primary preoccupation, social labor becomes entirely voluntary, and ongoing consumption props up aggregate demand. Eschewing utopian plans or prescriptions, he wonders,

What would society and civilisation be like if we didn’t have to ‘earn’ a living—if leisure was not our choice but our lot? Would we hang out at the local Starbucks, laptops open? Or volunteer to teach children in less-developed places, such as Mississippi? Or smoke weed and watch reality TV all day?

Enraged over the explosion of underpaid and precarious service work? Disaffected by soulless administration and info management positions? Indignant about the history of unfree labor that underwrites the history of the so-called “free market”? Want more free time? Not enough work to go around? Well, then, fuck work, declares Livingston. Say goodbye to the old liberal-democratic goal of full employment and bid good riddance to misery, servitude, and precarity.

“Fuck work” has struck a chord with a diverse crowd of readers. Since its release, the essay has garnered more than 350,000 clicks on the Aeon website. The Spanish publication Contexto y Acción has released a translation of the piece. And weeks later, Livingston’s rallying cry continues to resonate through social media networks. “Fuck Work” has been enthusiastically retweeted by everyone from Marxists and small “l” liberals to anarchists and tech gurus.

The trouble is that Livingston’s “Fuck Work” falls prey to an impoverished and, in a sense, classically Liberal social ontology, which reifies the neoliberal order it aims to transform. Disavowing modern humanity’s reliance on broadscale political governance and robust public infrastructures, this Liberal ontology predicates social life on immediate and seemingly “free” associations, while its critical preoccupation with tyranny and coercion eschews the charge of political interdependence and caretaking. Like so many Universal Basic Income supporters on the contemporary Left, Livingston doubles down on this contracted relationality. Far from a means to transcend neoliberal governance, Livingston’s triumphant negation of work only compounds neoliberalism’s two-faced retreat from collective governance and concomitant depoliticization of social production and distribution.

In a previous contribution to Arcade, I critiqued the Liberal conception of money upon which Marxists such as Livingston unquestionably rely. According to this conception, money is a private, finite and alienable quantum of value, which must be wrested from private coffers before it can be made to serve the public purpose. By contrast, Modern Monetary Theory contends that money is a boundless and fundamentally inalienable public utility. That utility is grounded in political governance. And government can always afford to support meaningful social production, regardless of its ability to capture taxes from the rich. The result: employment is always and everywhere a political decision, not merely a function of private enterprise, boom and bust cycles, and automation. There is therefore nothing inevitable about underemployment and the misery it induces. In no sense are we destined for a “jobless future.”

Thus upon encountering Aeon Magazine’s tagline for Livingston’s piece—“What if jobs are not the solution, but the problem?”—I immediately began wondering otherwise.

What if we rebuffed the white patriarchal jargon of full employment, which keeps millions of poor, women, and minorities underemployed and imprisoned? What if, in lieu of this liberal-democratic ruse, we made an all-inclusive and well-funded federal Job Guarantee the basis for a renewed leftist imaginary?

What if we stopped believing that capitalists and automation are responsible for determining how and when we labor together? What if we quit imagining that so-called “leisure” spontaneously organizes itself like the laissez-faire markets we elsewhere decry?

What if we created a public works system, which set a just and truly livable wage floor for the entire economy? What if we made it impossible for reprehensible employers like Walmart to exploit the underprivileged, while multiplying everyone’s bargaining powers? What if we used such a system to decrease the average work day, to demand that everyone has healthcare, and to increase the quality of social participation across public and private sectors? What if economic life was no longer grounded solely in the profit motive?

What if we cared for all of our children, sick, and growing elderly population? What if we halved teacher-student ratios across all grade levels? What if we built affordable homes for everyone? What if there was a community garden on every block? What if we made our cities energy efficient? What if we expanded public libraries? What if we socialized and remunerated historically unpaid care work? What if public art centers became standard features of neighborhoods? What if we paid young people to document the lives of retirees?

What if we guaranteed that Black lives really matter? What if, in addition to dismantling the prison industrial complex, we created a rich and welcoming world where everyone, citizen or not, has the right to participation and care?   

What if private industry’s rejection of workers freed the public to organize social labor on capacious, diverse, and openly contested premises?

What if public works affirmed inclusion, collaboration, and difference? What if we acknowledged that the passions of working life are irreducible to a largely mythical Protestant work ethic? What if questioning the meaning and value of work become part of working life itself?

What if we predicated social critique on terms that are not defined by the neoliberal ideology that we wish to circumvent?

What if we radically affirmed our dependence on the public institutions that support us? What if we forced government to take responsibility for the system it already conditions?

What if we admitted that there are no limits to how we can care for one another and that, as a political community, we can always afford it?

Livingston’s argument cannot abide such questions. Hence the Left's reply to “fuck work” should be clear: fuck that.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I ) 

9 Theses toward a Neochartalist Philosophy of Capitalism

May 7, 2018 - 14:52
Tags:  political economy, capitalism, monetary theory, Marxism

"Capital" is not what capital is called, it is what its name is called.

Joan Robinson (1954)

The following represents an attempt to articulate a neochartalist philosophy of capitalism. The 9 theses collected here spring from the startling insight of the leading neochartalist school of political economy known as Modern Monetary Theory (MMT): namely, that money is a boundless public monopoly that belongs to the people, rather than a finite form of private investment and speculation that owes its existence to capitalists. Or, as MMTer Stephanie Kelton will also put it, “Money does not grow on rich people.”

Political governance constitutes the center and unoutstrippable ground of economic life, argues MMT; and a currency-issuing government will never run out of a unit that it alone supplies. Public spending, therefore, can always be made to justly shape and include everyone in processes of social production. This will not cause inflationary price rises, insists MMT economists, so long as disbursements remain directed at real resources and productive capacities. What is required to immediately address systemic poverty and environmental degradation, MMT shows, is neither the restoration of tax-and-spend liberalism, nor the calamitous destruction of the value-form but, rather, collective will and the political capacity to produce money whence it always emanates: government balance sheets, which is also to say, thin air

On this critic’s reading, MMT’s revelation not only transforms the central problem of political economy; it also radically reconfigures how we both imagine and answer the neoliberal catastrophe.

9 Theses

(1) Capitalism is the arbitrary law that no sovereign currency-issuing government should wield its boundless public purse to fully serve the peoples and environs money encompasses.

(2) Capitalism derives its contradictory laws of motion from the aforesaid arbitrary law.

(3) Capitalism’s subsidiary laws of motion engender a highly unstable and exploitative economic system.

(4) Capitalism is the false name given to the totality that modern money conditions.

(5) Capitalism’s namesake (the imagined “capitalist totality” and so-called "capitalist mode of production") reduces the whole of monetary relations to private capital relations.

(6) Capitalism’s naming (a nineteenth-century conceit) represses money’s publicness, infinitude, and answerability.

(7) Capitalism is neither the subject, nor the prime mover of modernity.

(8) Capitalism is a cataract in the eye of history.

(9) Capitalism does not exist.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I ) 

Virtual Reality or What Used to Be Called Literature

April 30, 2018 - 05:22
Tags:  Virtual Reality, Literature as vicarious experience, art, Apuleius, defamiliarization, The Golden Ass, Bailenson

The students were understandably terrified as they headed to their slaughter. With the aid of special goggles and gloves provided by the Stanford Lab, they had drunk from a virtual trough, had eaten virtual hay, and were now prodded to their virtual death. “I felt as if I was in the place of a cow,” confessed one participant.

Having read about this experiment in Jeremy Bailenson’s Experience on Demand: What Virtual Reality is, How it Works, and What it Can Do, I felt a sense of déjà vu. For I had been discussing this type of perspective-taking with my freshman class in relation to Apuleius’ Latin novel, The Golden Ass.

A native of Madaura in North Africa (125-170CE), Apuleius asked readers to imagine themselves as a donkey instead of a cow. More than two thousand years ago he performed the same exercise Bailenson was conducting — getting people to put themselves in the hooves of an animal. He achieved a similar effect through the artifice of art rather than the gadgets of virtual reality; in other words, through stories, humor, and hyperbole.

Finding himself in an area of Greece known for magic and sorcery, the aristocrat Lucius takes up with Fotis, the servant of the witch, Pamphile. After he observes Pamphile turn herself into a bird, Lucius begs his lover for the magic potion. As soon as she offers it to him, he smears it on his body and begins to flap his arms, expecting to soar. But rather than sprouting wings and feathers, he grows hair, hooves and a long tail. 

By accident Fotis had given him the wrong mix and our hero turns into an ass. Unfortunately for him, bandits then break into the house, seize Lucius, load him with their loot, and prod him to a cave.  And Lucius, still retaining his consciousness as a man with considerable literary skills, begins to see what it’s like to lose his autonomy and be used as a beast of burden. He turns into a commodity, repeatedly bought and sold, with potential owners shoving their fingers into his mouth to check his state of health. “We bought him in a Cappadocian slave-market,” shouts out one auctioneer.

Lucius, of course, is treated just like any other animal but his emotions and brain interpret these actions as oppression and cruelty. His transformation into an ass becomes a parable of slavery which allows Apuleius to conduct a satire of Roman society.

At the same time, Apuleius demonstrates how a change of perspective can be transformational. Despite the degradation, exploitation, and torture Lucius endures, he is grateful to “his many adventures in ass-disguise” because they broadened his “experience.” He prizes his long ears with which he picks up fascinating stories. Lucius, the ass, sees himself as an Odysseus, “who had visited many cities and come to know many different peoples.” He believes, in other words, that his conversion gave him empathy, the capacity to understand other people. And we, as readers, acquire this same perspective by following his ass-odyssey.

This, of course, has always been one of the functions of literature. Story-telling enables listeners to live vicariously, through the fears, loves, anxieties, and promises of other people. Readers enter the minds of these individuals and follow their adventures, all the time knowing that this is an invented narrative.

Bailenson claims that virtual reality can surpass literature in creating life-like experiences. When the technology is perfected, virtual reality could become the “ultimate empathy machine,” allowing us to inhabit the body of another person, swim like a whale, walk like a cow, but also kill like a mass-murderer and torture like a sadist. 

Avoiding the Internet boosterism of the previous decade, Bailenson acknowledges that virtual reality can be a tool both for social improvement and evil. While one person can augment her language skills by virtual reality, the other can become an accomplished murderer. Bailenson celebrates virtual reality’s capacity for enabling us to “fly to the moon like Superman,” while expressing disquiet about its potential for misuse. Despite these misgivings, he is optimistic about the power of Virtual Reality to enhance our aptitude for empathy and see the world through the eyes of a refugee or of a fish in a net.

If virtual reality can indeed foster interpersonal and international understanding, if it can allow us to appreciate the positions of other individuals or animals, it should be welcomed. But it won’t make us happy. We won’t be satisfied to float into endlessly life-like sensations because we require fabrication in our lives as much as authenticity.  

For its part, virtual reality seeks the verisimilitude of the ancient painter Zeuxis who, upon unveiling his painting of a bunch of grapes, watched birds descend upon them. It tricks the mind into believing that the fabrication is totally real, seeking to erase the distance between the concept and the thing. It forgets, however, that we, as human beings, also need to hang on our walls paintings that we know are paintings, that is, representations of reality.

As much as we strive for a slice of life, we also seek the lies of fiction. We delight in the boundary between fantasy and actuality, needing the separation between the actual and the possible that virtual reality erases. What defines us as human beings is our pleasure in entering the imaginary worlds of Odysseus, Anna Karenina, or Harry Potter, and in juxtaposing their lives with our own.

The beauty of art is the frame, the boundary we fashion around the fabricated image that helps us better appreciate the real one. Jarod Lanier, a founder of virtual reality, understands this. It is when you remove the goggles of Virtual Reality, he says, that things make sense. “The most ordinary surface, cheap wood or plain dirt, is bejeweled in infinite detail for a short while.”

Lanier describes here defamiliarization, the capacity of literature to heighten experience, to make the stuff of life seem brighter, marvelous, and worth noting. Literature has always asked us to pause and take notice of the wonder of life. It makes the familiar strange and the strange familiar, providing a perch from which to observe, criticize, and change our lives.

Seen from this perspective the real danger of virtual reality lies less in unceasing addiction than in the obliteration of the boundary between fact and fiction. By destroying artifice, it may end up killing what makes us human.

While the sirens of virtual reality lure us into an infinitely expanding empiricism, our inner voices sing just as insistently that we need illusion.   

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Virtual Reality or What Used to Be Called Literature

April 30, 2018 - 05:22
Tags:  Virtual Reality, Literature as vicarious experience, art, Apuleius, defamiliarization, The Golden Ass, Bailenson

The students were understandably terrified as they headed to their slaughter. With the aid of special goggles and gloves provided by the Stanford Lab, they had drunk from a virtual trough, had eaten virtual hay, and were now prodded to their virtual death. “I felt as if I was in the place of a cow,” confessed one participant.

Having read about this experiment in Jeremy Bailenson’s Experience on Demand: What Virtual Reality is, How it Works, and What it Can Do, I felt a sense of déjà vu. For I had been discussing this type of perspective-taking with my freshman class in relation to Apuleius’ Latin novel, The Golden Ass.

A native of Madaura in North Africa (125-170CE), Apuleius asked readers to imagine themselves as a donkey instead of a cow. More than two thousand years ago he performed the same exercise Bailenson was conducting — getting people to put themselves in the hooves of an animal. He achieved a similar effect through the artifice of art rather than the gadgets of virtual reality; in other words, through stories, humor, and hyperbole.

Finding himself in an area of Greece known for magic and sorcery, the aristocrat Lucius takes up with Fotis, the servant of the witch, Pamphile. After he observes Pamphile turn herself into a bird, Lucius begs his lover for the magic potion. As soon as she offers it to him, he smears it on his body and begins to flap his arms, expecting to soar. But rather than sprouting wings and feathers, he grows hair, hooves and a long tail. 

By accident Fotis had given him the wrong mix and our hero turns into an ass. Unfortunately for him, bandits then break into the house, seize Lucius, load him with their loot, and prod him to a cave.  And Lucius, still retaining his consciousness as a man with considerable literary skills, begins to see what it’s like to lose his autonomy and be used as a beast of burden. He turns into a commodity, repeatedly bought and sold, with potential owners shoving their fingers into his mouth to check his state of health. “We bought him in a Cappadocian slave-market,” shouts out one auctioneer.

Lucius, of course, is treated just like any other animal but his emotions and brain interpret these actions as oppression and cruelty. His transformation into an ass becomes a parable of slavery which allows Apuleius to conduct a satire of Roman society.

At the same time, Apuleius demonstrates how a change of perspective can be transformational. Despite the degradation, exploitation, and torture Lucius endures, he is grateful to “his many adventures in ass-disguise” because they broadened his “experience.” He prizes his long ears with which he picks up fascinating stories. Lucius, the ass, sees himself as an Odysseus, “who had visited many cities and come to know many different peoples.” He believes, in other words, that his conversion gave him empathy, the capacity to understand other people. And we, as readers, acquire this same perspective by following his ass-odyssey.

This, of course, has always been one of the functions of literature. Story-telling enables listeners to live vicariously, through the fears, loves, anxieties, and promises of other people. Readers enter the minds of these individuals and follow their adventures, all the time knowing that this is an invented narrative.

Bailenson claims that virtual reality can surpass literature in creating life-like experiences. When the technology is perfected, virtual reality could become the “ultimate empathy machine,” allowing us to inhabit the body of another person, swim like a whale, walk like a cow, but also kill like a mass-murderer and torture like a sadist. 

Avoiding the Internet boosterism of the previous decade, Bailenson acknowledges that virtual reality can be a tool both for social improvement and evil. While one person can augment her language skills by virtual reality, the other can become an accomplished murderer. Bailenson celebrates virtual reality’s capacity for enabling us to “fly to the moon like Superman,” while expressing disquiet about its potential for misuse. Despite these misgivings, he is optimistic about the power of Virtual Reality to enhance our aptitude for empathy and see the world through the eyes of a refugee or of a fish in a net.

If virtual reality can indeed foster interpersonal and international understanding, if it can allow us to appreciate the positions of other individuals or animals, it should be welcomed. But it won’t make us happy. We won’t be satisfied to float into endlessly life-like sensations because we require fabrication in our lives as much as authenticity.  

For its part, virtual reality seeks the verisimilitude of the ancient painter Zeuxis who, upon unveiling his painting of a bunch of grapes, watched birds descend upon them. It tricks the mind into believing that the fabrication is totally real, seeking to erase the distance between the concept and the thing. It forgets, however, that we, as human beings, also need to hang on our walls paintings that we know are paintings, that is, representations of reality.

As much as we strive for a slice of life, we also seek the lies of fiction. We delight in the boundary between fantasy and actuality, needing the separation between the actual and the possible that virtual reality erases. What defines us as human beings is our pleasure in entering the imaginary worlds of Odysseus, Anna Karenina, or Harry Potter, and in juxtaposing their lives with our own.

The beauty of art is the frame, the boundary we fashion around the fabricated image that helps us better appreciate the real one. Jarod Lanier, a founder of virtual reality, understands this. It is when you remove the goggles of Virtual Reality, he says, that things make sense. “The most ordinary surface, cheap wood or plain dirt, is bejeweled in infinite detail for a short while.”

Lanier describes here defamiliarization, the capacity of literature to heighten experience, to make the stuff of life seem brighter, marvelous, and worth noting. Literature has always asked us to pause and take notice of the wonder of life. It makes the familiar strange and the strange familiar, providing a perch from which to observe, criticize, and change our lives.

Seen from this perspective the real danger of virtual reality lies less in unceasing addiction than in the obliteration of the boundary between fact and fiction. By destroying artifice, it may end up killing what makes us human.

While the sirens of virtual reality lure us into an infinitely expanding empiricism, our inner voices sing just as insistently that we need illusion.   

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Abbas Kiarostami’s Digital Turn

April 30, 2018 - 04:41
Tags:  Iran, Film, digital culture, art, photography

A scene from the late Iranian director Abbas Kiarostami’s last film, 24 Frames, feels like a visual incarnation of a line from Virginia Woolf: “the waves fell; withdrew and fell again, like the thud of a great beast stamping.” Along a shore, water laps and returns. That movement finds its echo in the image of a cow, lying on its side, slowly breathing in and out. A set of cowbells ringing off screen augurs the arrival of a small herd of cows that tumbles left to right across the screen, paying no attention to the prone figure. As we wonder whether the creature is injured, sleeping or dying, several minutes elapse before it abruptly rises and drags itself off-stage through the waves.

Except that when Abbas Kiarostami was putting together this bucolic scene, there were no beasts stamping the sand, no speckled cow conveniently napping within frame. Instead, Kiarostami found stock footage of a cow on its side and animated it by stretching and contracting the still image on top of the beach. The bovine figure’s heavy respiration turns out to be a digital trick, and that freewheeling, demiurgic sense of composition is the premise behind 24 Frames. Using digital techniques to animate photographs, Kiarostami’s final project asks what happens just before and after a still is taken, what surrounds a photographic epiphany on either side of an instant.

The genesis of the project was Kiarostami’s desire to animate several paintings that had influenced him, such as Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s The Hunters in the Snow, but soon evolved to include photographs from his own collection as well as collages of stock video and found images. Each frame begins with a still image, which then begins to move, a technique reminiscent of how the Lumière brothers presented the beginnings of their first films. It was only after the still photograph was displayed that, as Tom Gunning notes, “the projector began cranking and the image moved.” In 24 Frames, the “framing” is also frequently literal. Many sequences are shot through screens: a car door in winter, an open window looking out on a swaying tree, the silhouette of a bird behind a drawn shade in a study. The end result is a  psychic bricolage: a series of twenty-four dream-like animated “images,” each lasting four and a half minutes.

In some scenes, Kiarostami’s digital manipulation is difficult to discern, while in others, he attempts to cover obvious glitches with meteorological phenomena, such as snow effects. He is not after a Hollywood-level of technical perfection and often seems to revel in the artificiality of his scenes. For example, in the fifteenth frame, which is based on an actual photograph Kiarostami had once taken in Paris, six figures, ostensibly visiting from Iran, look at the Eiffel Tower with their backs turned to us. They remain absolutely still, even as the photograph begins to shimmer with the movements and sounds of interpolated passersby. Their preternatural stasis betrays the hybridity of Kiarostami’s idiosyncratic form of animated photography. In this frame, he is reconstructing a past memory; in others, the scenario is fabricated from scratch. In one of the early frames, for example, a black car window is slowly lowered to reveal a pure, snowy landscape. Two black stallions jump playfully among a stand of trees as snow falls. This monochromatic scene is simultaneously real and unreal: its perfectly posed animal protagonists gracefully jumping and flicking their tails on a loop within the quadrant of the car window’s de facto stage. Yet, the fact that this is digital pastiche does not lessen the beauty of the sequence.

While 24 Frames is unlike any of Kiarostami’s previous work, it pays the same careful attention to form that long fascinated the Iranian director. From Close-Up (1990) to And Life Goes On (1992) and Ten (2002), Kiarostami has often been interested in film as a self-consciously constructed work of art. The director sometimes contrasted that quality of filmmaking with photography, a field he was equally familiar with. In a 2002 interview with Youssef Ishaghpour, Kiarostami noted that “je suis le spectateur d’une photographie dans laquelle je ne suis pas intervenu. Je n’ai pas construit la nature, l’appareil a été fabriqué par quelqu’un d’autre. Je n’ai fait qu’appuyer instantanément sur le bouton” [“I am the spectator of a photograph in which I did not intervene. I did not build the nature, the device was fabricated by someone else. I just pressed the button instantly.”] Kiarostami suggests that photography requires less direction from him, unlike film. In Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes famously correlates that reduced degree of intervention in photography with its certainty: “One day I received from a photographer a picture of myself which I could not remember being taken, for all my efforts; I inspected the tie, the sweater, to discover in what circumstances I had worn them; to no avail. And yet, because it was a photograph I could not deny that I had been there (even if I did not know where).”

As Kiarostami would no doubt have agreed, Barthes’s distinction—that a photograph always communicates thereness, and therefore, certaintyno longer rings true in our post-analog world. Photographs are just as stageable or subject to manipulation as films are, as 24 Frames so carefully shows us . Indeed, the film pushes the boundary between photography and film to its limit, breaking down the distinction between moment and duration, a feat that would not have been possible without Kiarostami’s openness to digital techniques. Tracing Kiarostami’s passage from analog to digital cameras, Scott Kryzch has commented that some of Kiarostami’s later work depends on the use of digital cameras, even if some of the recurring qualities of his filmsan interest in constant movement,  sequences shot through windows, characters placed in front car seatshave stayed the same. Of Kiarostami’s Ten, he writes: “[A]s we follow Mania through the streets of Tehran and spy on the conversations with her various passengers, our position as spectators becomes comparable to that of the director, who, like us, was absent from the actual recording. In 10 on 10 [sic] Kiarostami describes this free mobility as producing a form of spontaneity never before achieved by actors in his earlier films.”

After our journey across beaches and through forests, among crows, lions, horses, cows and sheep, through landscapes devoid of dialogue and people, the final frame returns us to how 24 Frames itself was conceived: in front of a computer in Kiarostami’s study. A young woman with dreadlocks gently sleeps with her head on a desk in a room surrounded by six windows. The computer screen in front of her shows video editing software, and within that border of menus and controls, a scene of a couple looking into each other’s eyes from William Wyler’s The Best Years of Our Lives (1946) advances slowly frame by frame. For all the quiet of this scene, an Andrew Lloyd Webber song blares incongruously in the background. Yet, what strikes us the most is the tempo of this sequence. The frame rate of the couple has been technologically slowed down, to a rate much slower than the actual scene we are watching. The two figures from the old Hollywood film are slowly colliding, coming together in a kiss.

There are almost too many exquisite things happening here to mention: the wry nod by an auteur to American cinema, the human physicality so absent from the rest of the project and the sense of finality by an artist aware that this is his final work. Although Kiarostami’s son Ahmad helped posthumously edit the final project down to twenty-four sequences, he did not alter the overall order of the film. There is something faintly elegiac about this frame, but also refreshingly open to cinema’s technological possibilities, to its persistence into the future. If, as Barthes had remarked, the figures in a photograph are “anesthetized and fastened down, like butterflies,” Kiarostami shows us, in his conjuring of digital slowness, how these figures can still tremble, shiver and shake.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Abbas Kiarostami’s Digital Turn

April 30, 2018 - 04:41
Tags:  Iran, Film, digital culture, art, photography

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

A scene from the late Iranian director Abbas Kiarostami’s last film, 24 Frames, feels like a visual incarnation of a line from Virginia Woolf: “the waves fell; withdrew and fell again, like the thud of a great beast stamping.” Along a shore, water laps and returns. That movement finds its echo in the image of a cow, lying on its side, slowly breathing in and out. A set of cowbells ringing off screen augurs the arrival of a small herd of cows that tumbles left to right across the screen, paying no attention to the prone figure. As we wonder whether the creature is injured, sleeping or dying, several minutes elapse before it abruptly rises and drags itself off-stage through the waves.

Except that when Abbas Kiarostami was putting together this bucolic scene, there were no beasts stamping the sand, no speckled cow conveniently napping within frame. Instead, Kiarostami found stock footage of a cow on its side and animated it by stretching and contracting the still image on top of the beach. The bovine figure’s heavy respiration turns out to be a digital trick, and that freewheeling, demiurgic sense of composition is the premise behind 24 Frames. Using digital techniques to animate photographs, Kiarostami’s final project asks what happens just before and after a still is taken, what surrounds a photographic epiphany on either side of an instant.

The genesis of the project was Kiarostami’s desire to animate several paintings that had influenced him, such as Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s The Hunters in the Snow, but soon evolved to include photographs from his own collection as well as collages of stock video and found images. Each frame begins with a still image, which then begins to move, a technique reminiscent of how the Lumière brothers presented the beginnings of their first films. It was only after the still photograph was displayed that, as Tom Gunning notes, “the projector began cranking and the image moved.” In 24 Frames, the “framing” is also frequently literal. Many sequences are shot through screens: a car door in winter, an open window looking out on a swaying tree, the silhouette of a bird behind a drawn shade in a study. The end result is a  psychic bricolage: a series of twenty-four dream-like animated “images,” each lasting four and a half minutes.

In some scenes, Kiarostami’s digital manipulation is difficult to discern, while in others, he attempts to cover obvious glitches with meteorological phenomena, such as snow effects. He is not after a Hollywood-level of technical perfection and often seems to revel in the artificiality of his scenes. For example, in the fifteenth frame, which is based on an actual photograph Kiarostami had once taken in Paris, six figures, ostensibly visiting from Iran, look at the Eiffel Tower with their backs turned to us. They remain absolutely still, even as the photograph begins to shimmer with the movements and sounds of interpolated passersby. Their preternatural stasis betrays the hybridity of Kiarostami’s idiosyncratic form of animated photography. In this frame, he is reconstructing a past memory; in others, the scenario is fabricated from scratch. In one of the early frames, for example, a black car window is slowly lowered to reveal a pure, snowy landscape. Two black stallions jump playfully among a stand of trees as snow falls. This monochromatic scene is simultaneously real and unreal: its perfectly posed animal protagonists gracefully jumping and flicking their tails on a loop within the quadrant of the car window’s de facto stage. Yet, the fact that this is digital pastiche does not lessen the beauty of the sequence.

While 24 Frames is unlike any of Kiarostami’s previous work, it pays the same careful attention to form that long fascinated the Iranian director. From Close-Up (1990) to And Life Goes On (1992) and Ten (2002), Kiarostami has often been interested in film as a self-consciously constructed work of art. The director sometimes contrasted that quality of filmmaking with photography, a field he was equally familiar with. In a 2002 interview with Youssef Ishaghpour, Kiarostami noted that “je suis le spectateur d’une photographie dans laquelle je ne suis pas intervenu. Je n’ai pas construit la nature, l’appareil a été fabriqué par quelqu’un d’autre. Je n’ai fait qu’appuyer instantanément sur le bouton” [“I am the spectator of a photograph in which I did not intervene. I did not build the nature, the device was fabricated by someone else. I just pressed the button instantly.”] Kiarostami suggests that photography requires less direction from him, unlike film. In Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes famously correlates that reduced degree of intervention in photography with its certainty: “One day I received from a photographer a picture of myself which I could not remember being taken, for all my efforts; I inspected the tie, the sweater, to discover in what circumstances I had worn them; to no avail. And yet, because it was a photograph I could not deny that I had been there (even if I did not know where).”

As Kiarostami would no doubt have agreed, Barthes’s distinction—that a photograph always communicates thereness, and therefore, certaintyno longer rings true in our post-analog world. Photographs are just as stageable or subject to manipulation as films are, as 24 Frames so carefully shows us . Indeed, the film pushes the boundary between photography and film to its limit, breaking down the distinction between moment and duration, a feat that would not have been possible without Kiarostami’s openness to digital techniques. Tracing Kiarostami’s passage from analog to digital cameras, Scott Kryzch has commented that some of Kiarostami’s later work depends on the use of digital cameras, even if some of the recurring qualities of his filmsan interest in constant movement,  sequences shot through windows, characters placed in front car seatshave stayed the same. Of Kiarostami’s Ten, he writes: “[A]s we follow Mania through the streets of Tehran and spy on the conversations with her various passengers, our position as spectators becomes comparable to that of the director, who, like us, was absent from the actual recording. In 10 on 10 [sic] Kiarostami describes this free mobility as producing a form of spontaneity never before achieved by actors in his earlier films.”

After our journey across beaches and through forests, among crows, lions, horses, cows and sheep, through landscapes devoid of dialogue and people, the final frame returns us to how 24 Frames itself was conceived: in front of a computer in Kiarostami’s study. A young woman with dreadlocks gently sleeps with her head on a desk in a room surrounded by six windows. The computer screen in front of her shows video editing software, and within that border of menus and controls, a scene of a couple looking into each other’s eyes from William Wyler’s The Best Years of Our Lives (1946) advances slowly frame by frame. For all the quiet of this scene, an Andrew Lloyd Weber song blares incongruously in the background. Yet, what strikes us the most is the tempo of this sequence. The frame rate of the couple has been technologically slowed down, to a rate much slower than the actual scene we are watching. The two figures from the old Hollywood film are slowly colliding, coming together in a kiss.

There are almost too many exquisite things happening here to mention: the wry nod by an auteur to American cinema, the human physicality so absent from the rest of the project and the sense of finality by an artist aware that this is his final work. Although Kiarostami’s son Ahmad helped posthumously edit the final project down to twenty-four sequences, he did not alter the overall order of the film. There is something faintly elegiac about this frame, but also refreshingly open to cinema’s technological possibilities, to its persistence into the future. If, as Barthes had remarked, the figures in a photograph are “anesthetized and fastened down, like butterflies,” Kiarostami shows us, in his conjuring of digital slowness, how these figures can still tremble, shiver and shake.

Pomes Bitcoineach

April 23, 2018 - 07:24
Tags:  James Joyce, Hiroki Fukai, Philip Larkin, Yu Awaya, Narayana R. Kocherlakota, James Merrill, Blockchain, money, memory, Kurt Vonnegut Jr., poetry, Kay Ryan, Wallace Stevens, terza rima

 

“Money is a kind of poetry.” —Wallace Stevens

“Poetry is a kind of money.” —Kay Ryan

“Money is memory.” —Narayana R. Kocherlakota

“Money was not time.” —James Merrill

“Money, by providing an intermediate level of information between memory and no memory, gives rise to an equilibrium outcome that cannot arise under either memory or no-memory. —Yu Awaya and Hiroki Fukai

I am writing to explain
To those who like this kind of thing
The sweet incentives of blockchain.

What kind of thing? Well if you bring
A taste for versatility                                             5
To what you read or write or sing,

Then dig: it’s like a poem really,
A crystallizing propagation.
If rhyme’s some poems’ currency

Blockchain is money’s rhyme, inflation-             10
Proof, while marking passing time
Through lines that, vectored like narration,

Distribute meaning into rhyme.
As readers mine linguistic ore,
Guessing rhymes first's just sublime —    15

Anticipating more and more
The content form will make its own,
So cryptominers solve a core

Equation — so that those who hone
Their skills at finding wealth create it,                 20
Make cash, which like a fossil bone,

Records the process that will date it.
As each rhyme puts more rhyme in play,
Until the whole network seems fated,

So too a blockchain’s records lay                       25
A matrix down, like terza rima,
That marks down payments and will pay,

As much as anyone could dream, a
Fee that finds and founds the future,
Unfolding in this golden schema.                      30

Its own reward adds to the structure,
Propelling value down a chain....
But if you lose the thread, you’re fucked, your

Ice-nine diamond coal again.

 

NOTES

Title  The Italian means: "The Sweet New Coins"

l. 3 sweet  Compare "Dolce stile nuovo" in Purgatorio XXIV: 27

l. 6 sing  Possibly an echo of a line in Philip Larkin's (1922-85) "Money": "I listen to money singing."

l. 7 dig  Hipster slang for "listen and understand," with an obvious pun on digging as mining, and a possible reference to a poem by Seamus Heaney (1939-2013) called "Digging," which is about writing poetry as a kind of mining.

l. 15 guessing...first Part of the pleasure of terza rima and many other forms with triple rhymes, according to Professor Münzen of LMU.  The best examples in English might found in limericks, as in the well known example: "There once was a man from Nantucket," to which line 33 is perhaps an allusion.

l. 34 Ice-nine diamond  Unexplained, though perhaps a reference to the reduplicating triplets of terza rima.  As is well-known, there is no perfectly elegant way to end a terza rima poem, since the middle line of every tercet is unrhymed until another tercet is added to it, which means that every tercet requires a successor.  When a terza rima poem ends with a single line, as here, you get the effect of a sudden collapse in the propagation of the poem.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Pomes Bitcoineach

April 23, 2018 - 07:24
Tags:  James Joyce, Hiroki Fukai, Philip Larkin, Yu Awaya, Narayana R. Kocherlakota, James Merrill, Blockchain, money, memory, Kurt Vonnegut Jr., poetry, Kay Ryan, Wallace Stevens, terza rima

 

“Money is a kind of poetry.” —Wallace Stevens

“Poetry is a kind of money.” —Kay Ryan

“Money is memory.” —Narayana R. Kocherlakota

“Money was not time.” —James Merrill

“Money, by providing an intermediate level of information between memory and no memory, gives rise to an equilibrium outcome that cannot arise under either memory or no-memory. —Yu Awaya and Hiroki Fukai

I am writing to explain
To those who like this kind of thing
The sweet incentives of blockchain.

What kind of thing? Well if you bring
A taste for versatility                                             5
To what you read or write or sing,

Then dig: it’s like a poem really,
A crystallizing propagation.
If rhyme’s some poems’ currency

Blockchain is money’s rhyme, inflation-             10
Proof, while marking passing time
Through lines that, vectored like narration,

Distribute meaning into rhyme.
As readers mine linguistic ore,
Guessing rhymes first's just sublime —    15

Anticipating more and more
The content form will make its own,
So cryptominers solve a core

Equation — so that those who hone
Their skills at finding wealth create it,                 20
Make cash, which like a fossil bone,

Records the process that will date it.
As each rhyme puts more rhyme in play,
Until the whole network seems fated,

So too a blockchain’s records lay                       25
A matrix down, like terza rima,
That marks down payments and will pay,

As much as anyone could dream, a
Fee that finds and founds the future,
Unfolding in this golden schema.                      30

Its own reward adds to the structure,
Propelling value down a chain....
But if you lose the thread, you’re fucked, your

Ice-nine diamond coal again.

 

NOTES

Title  The Italian means: "The Sweet New Coins"

l. 3 sweet  Compare "Dolce stile nuovo" in Purgatorio XXIV: 27

l. 6 sing  Possibly an echo of a line in Philip Larkin's (1922-85) "Money": "I listen to money singing."

l. 7 dig  Hipster slang for "listen and understand," with an obvious pun on digging as mining, and a possible reference to a poem by Seamus Heaney (1939-2013) called "Digging," which is about writing poetry as a kind of mining.

l. 15 guessing...first Part of the pleasure of terza rima and many other forms with triple rhymes, according to Professor Münzen of LMU.  The best examples in English might found in limericks, as in the well known example: "There once was a man from Nantucket," to which line 33 is perhaps an allusion.

l. 34 Ice-nine diamond  Unexplained, though perhaps a reference to the reduplicating triplets of terza rima.  As is well-known, there is no perfectly elegant way to end a terza rima poem, since the middle line of every tercet is unrhymed until another tercet is added to it, which means that every tercet requires a successor.  When a terza rima poem ends with a single line, as here, you get the effect of a sudden collapse in the propagation of the poem.

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Why Only Art Can Save Us: An Interview with Santiago Zabala

April 19, 2018 - 12:12
Tags:  art, Aesthetics, hermeneutics, politics, Donald Trump, state of emergency

Q: Recently Donald and Melania Trump requested a Vincent van Gogh painting from the Guggenheim, but the museum responded with a counteroffer, Maurizio Cattelan’s America, a gold toilet. I wonder if your book, which also features a work by the Italian artist in the cover, should also be interpreted as a move similar to Nancy Spector’s (the museum’s chief curator), a provocation and intervention in the public sphere. After all, you call for “existential interventions” through art.

SZ: I’m not certain whether Cattelan and Spector wanted to provoke or educate the Trump family. Either way, Cattelan’s America is a serious work of art that, as we can see, has managed to intervene in the public sphere. The sculpture on the cover of my book is called The Ninth Hour (1999) and depicts Pope John Paul II lying on the ground after being struck by a meteorite. Recently, Paolo Sorrentino used it in the opening credits of his TV series The Young Pope. The sculpture’s title alludes to the ninth hour of darkness that fell upon all the land when Christ cried out, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?”—“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”—but the book’s title paraphrases Martin Heidegger’s famous response when he was asked whether we could still have any influence now that we are so overpowered by technology: “only a God can still save us.” My intention is to point out, now that God is dead and we are even more overpowered, perhaps it's art’s time to save us. The intervention you refer to has to do with demands of art in the twenty-first century, which are linked to our continued existence, that is, our salvation.

Q: So after the death of God, only art can save us? What is the relation between the absence of emergency and the possibility of art saving us?

SZ: One must distinguish between emergencies and the absence of emergencies. The former has become the axiomatic term through which sovereigns legitimize any imposed order through the framing concept of a “state of exception,” as Carl Schmidt, Walter Benjamin, and Giorgio Agamben have all explained. The absence of emergencies is the result: a world where politics, finance, and privacy have been forced into previously established technological frames. This is why Heidegger (who was the first to point out in the 1940s how the “only emergency is the absence of emergency”) believed emergencies do not arise when something doesn’t function correctly but rather when “everything functions . . . and propels everything more and more toward further functioning.” In a world where we are constantly under surveillance, and even the future is becoming predictable through online data mining, the problem is not those constructed-for-consumption emergencies that we make a loud show of confronting in the blare of the twenty-four-hour news cycle but rather the ones that we ignore. In this condition, the election of Trump, for example, rather than constituting an emergency, seems to be the incarnation of the absence of emergencies—a state of broadcast emergency signals that are meant to drown out the real but absent emergencies, from climate change to civil and human rights. In this condition the goal of art is not rescue us “from emergenciesbut ratherinto emergencies.” Rescuing from necessarily means concealing the essential emergencies that shape the modern world, but rescuing into means thrusting us into these emergencies, that is, saving us by revealing what has been hidden in plain sight. As Hölderlin said: “Where the danger is, also grows the saving power.” The works of art I explore thrust us into these emergencies.

Q: The twelve artists you discuss are all very different from one another. And the absent emergencies you confront through their works also vary widely. Can we consider your book an attempt to create an interdisciplinary conversation?

SZ: Yes, sure, as long as by “interdisciplinary” you refer to the Geisteswissenschaften, the human sciences, as they are represented in Arcade, for example. While I still have faith in the conversation (as Richard Rorty understood the term) among philosophy, literature, and history, I’m concerned that Naturwissenschaften, the natural sciences, are too integrated into Adorno’s “die totale Verwaltung,” the total administrative/organizational system, to contribute freely to the conversation. This does not mean I ignored scientific research. Quite the contrary. I refer to the work of the important marine biologist Judith S. Weis and the glaciologist Eric Rignot to understand the absent emergencies of marine pollution and Antarctica’s glaciers. But I use their research in order to interpret their findings broadly, that is, against the specialization that frames these disciplines. This is why hermeneutics, the philosophy of interpretation, is so important in the book.

Q: Are you referring to hermeneutics “anarchic” vein?

SZ: Yes. Hermeneutics, as I conceive it against Gadamer’s account, is an adversarial, antagonistic, and dangerous affair. After all, Hermes, as Gerard Bruns explains, was the “many-sided, uncontainable, nocturnal transgressor.” In order to understand works of art that thrust or rescue us into absent emergencies it’s necessary to practice interpretation as an existential intervention; our lives are at stake. This is why the danger each interpretation implies is meant to save us.

Q: Recently, both Silvia Mazzini and Martin Woessner said your book “is not aesthetic, but rather, exquisitely political,” that is, “continues the political struggle” you began in Hermeneutic Communism (coauthored with G. Vattimo). Do you agree?

SZ: If by “political struggle” we refer to an existential resistance, I agree. But just as I don’t see Hermeneutic Communism as a political book, neither is Why Only Art Can Save Us a contribution to aesthetics or to art theory. Instead, they are both attempts to disclose what remains of Being, that is, existence. This does not mean that communism and visual art are not central themes in the books, but they are functional to the emergence of Being, which has always been philosophy’s main concern.

Q: Contrary to Mazzini and Woessner, who wrote favorable reviews, Paul A. Kottman in Public Seminar believes there is a “crisis of authenticity” in academic philosophy and in contemporary art that you share with Cattelan’s work. You are both part of the problem.

SZ: I wish! It would be wonderful if my philosophy could do what Cattelan is doing to contemporary art. As far as authenticity is concerned: I would be much more worried if there wasn’t a crisis. This would imply a return to metaphysics, modernity, or, even worse, logocentrism. The truth is that art can rescue us into this crisis, and philosophy can interpret its meaning. Let’s keep doing both.

Santiago Zabala in conversation with Leonardo Franceschini, a Ph.D. Candidate at the Pompeu Fabra University and Visiting Scholar at East China University of Political Science and Law. 

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Why Only Art Can Save Us: An Interview with Santiago Zabala

April 19, 2018 - 12:12
Tags:  art, Aesthetics, hermeneutics, politics, Donald Trump, state of emergency

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Q: Recently Donald and Melania Trump requested a Vincent van Gogh painting from the Guggenheim, but the museum responded with a counteroffer, Maurizio Cattelan’s America, a gold toilet. I wonder if your book, which also features a work by the Italian artist in the cover, should also be interpreted as a move similar to Nancy Spector’s (the museum’s chief curator), a provocation and intervention in the public sphere. After all, you call for “existential interventions” through art.

SZ: I’m not certain whether Cattelan and Spector wanted to provoke or educate the Trump family. Either way, Cattelan’s America is a serious work of art that, as we can see, has managed to intervene in the public sphere. The sculpture on the cover of my book is called The Ninth Hour (1999) and depicts Pope John Paul II lying on the ground after being struck by a meteorite. Recently, Paolo Sorrentino used it in the opening credits of his TV series The Young Pope. The sculpture’s title alludes to the ninth hour of darkness that fell upon all the land when Christ cried out, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?”—“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”—but the book’s title paraphrases Martin Heidegger’s famous response when he was asked whether we could still have any influence now that we are so overpowered by technology: “only a God can still save us.” My intention is to point out, now that God is dead and we are even more overpowered, perhaps it's art’s time to save us. The intervention you refer to has to do with demands of art in the twenty-first century, which are linked to our continued existence, that is, our salvation.

Q: So after the death of God, only art can save us? What is the relation between the absence of emergency and the possibility of art saving us?

SZ: One must distinguish between emergencies and the absence of emergencies. The former has become the axiomatic term through which sovereigns legitimize any imposed order through the framing concept of a “state of exception,” as Carl Schmidt, Walter Benjamin, and Giorgio Agamben have all explained. The absence of emergencies is the result: a world where politics, finance, and privacy have been forced into previously established technological frames. This is why Heidegger (who was the first to point out in the 1940s how the “only emergency is the absence of emergency”) believed emergencies do not arise when something doesn’t function correctly but rather when “everything functions . . . and propels everything more and more toward further functioning.” In a world where we are constantly under surveillance, and even the future is becoming predictable through online data mining, the problem is not those constructed-for-consumption emergencies that we make a loud show of confronting in the blare of the twenty-four-hour news cycle but rather the ones that we ignore. In this condition, the election of Trump, for example, rather than constituting an emergency, seems to be the incarnation of the absence of emergencies—a state of broadcast emergency signals that are meant to drown out the real but absent emergencies, from climate change to civil and human rights. In this condition the goal of art is not rescue us “from emergencies” but rather “into emergencies.” Rescuing from necessarily means concealing the essential emergencies that shape the modern world, but rescuing into means thrusting us into these emergencies, that is, saving us by revealing what has been hidden in plain sight. As Hölderlin said: “Where the danger is, also grows the saving power.” The works of art I explore thrust us into these emergencies.

Q: The twelve artists you discuss are all very different from one another. And the absent emergencies you confront through their works also vary widely. Can we consider your book an attempt to create an interdisciplinary conversation?

SZ: Yes, sure, as long as by “interdisciplinary” you refer to the Geisteswissenschaften, the human sciences, as they are represented in Arcade, for example. While I still have faith in the conversation (as Richard Rorty understood the term) among philosophy, literature, and history, I’m concerned that Naturwissenschaften, the natural sciences, are too integrated into Adorno’s “die totale Verwaldung,” the total administrative/organizational system, to contribute freely to the conversation. This does not mean I ignored scientific research. Quite the contrary. I refer to the work of the important marine biologist Judith S. Weis and the glaciologist Eric Rignot to understand the absent emergencies of marine pollution and Antarctica’s glaciers. But I use their research in order to interpret their findings broadly, that is, against the specialization that frames these disciplines. This is why hermeneutics, the philosophy of interpretation, is so important in the book.

Q: Are you referring to hermeneutics “anarchic” vein?

SZ: Yes. Hermeneutics, as I conceive it against Gadamer’s account, is an adversarial, antagonistic, and dangerous affair. After all, Hermes, as Gerard Bruns explains, was the “many-sided, uncontainable, nocturnal transgressor.” In order to understand works of art that thrust or rescue us into absent emergencies it’s necessary to practice interpretation as an existential intervention; our lives are at stake. This is why the danger each interpretation implies is meant to save us.

Q: Recently, both Silvia Mazzini and Martin Woessner said your book “is not aesthetic, but rather, exquisitely political,” that is, “continues the political struggle” you began in Hermeneutic Communism (coauthored with G. Vattimo). Do you agree?

SZ: If by “political struggle” we refer to an existential resistance, I agree. But just as I don’t see Hermeneutic Communism as a political book, neither is Why Only Art Can Save Us a contribution to aesthetics or to art theory. Instead, they are both attempts to disclose what remains of Being, that is, existence. This does not mean that communism and visual art are not central themes in the books, but they are functional to the emergence of Being, which has always been philosophy’s main concern.

Q: Contrary to Mazzini and Woessner, who wrote favorable reviews, Paul A. Kottman in Public Seminar believes there is a “crisis of authenticity” in academic philosophy and in contemporary art that you share with Cattelan’s work. You are both part of the problem.

SZ: I wish! It would be wonderful if my philosophy could do what Cattelan is doing to contemporary art. As far as authenticity is concerned: I would be much more worried if there wasn’t a crisis. This would imply a return to metaphysics, modernity, or, even worse, logocentrism. The truth is that art can rescue us into this crisis, and philosophy can interpret its meaning. Let’s keep doing both.

Santiago Zabala in conversation with Leonardo Franceschini, a Ph.D. Candidate at the Pompeu Fabra University and Visiting Scholar at East China University of Political Science and Law. 

White People in Pictures: Forgetting Histories and Kazuo Ishiguro’s "The Buried Giant"

April 2, 2018 - 14:41
Tags:  medieval, contemporary novels, contemporary fiction, Kazuo Ishiguro, Racism, history

Since the release of The Buried Giant (2015), several friends have asked me what I think of the novel. That’s because I’m a medievalist. Without skipping a beat, I’ve replied that I love the novel. But that’s not because I’m a medievalist. Or, as I’ve explained, my reasons for being challenged and enthralled by the loosely Arthurian narrative are not due to its explicit engagements with the period I study. And, though I smirked when an aged Sir Gawain made his appearance, and though I thought it clever that Arthur’s finest knight maintained an affectionate bond with his elderly horse (called Homer in this quest narrative), for me these details simply revealed Ishiguro’s participation in a long literary tradition of representing heroic masculinity. As it turns out, though, and in a way that I could only realize since the novel’s 2015 release, heroic masculinity’s historical trajectory connects points of my past to other pasts in ways that I’ve never before acknowledged.

All along, my enthusiasm for the novel derived from issues that have long made me an Ishiguro fan: the tangled imbrication of history, memory, and identity remains a characteristic concern in a work that many reviewers have treated as a radical departure.[1] Like he does in his earlier novels, Ishiguro continues to think through the effects of scale on the stories we tell: how do local histories get articulated in relation to more extended sequences of events? How do our memories of particular experiences get resignified when they are viewed in a broader historical context? And, finally, how do our ideas about difference change when they are moved from the personal to the national domain? In ways I had not fully admitted to myself, this last question, the relationship between alterity, collectivity, and intimacy, does indeed relate to my area of study, and in ways that make studying and teaching the Middle Ages—in all its fictionalized instantiations—even more crucial in this fraught cultural moment.

Late in the story, when the warrior Wistan asks the young Edmund to “hate the Briton” (242;243; 301), he throws into question the entire history of the novel itself.[2] Since this is a novel that features an aged pair of protagonists who struggle to remember anything about their past, it is an understatement to say that this history is hard-won. If the recollective wanderings of Axl and Beatrice have taught us anything (and this is a novel one must learn to read), it is that the lives we hope we are leading sometimes slip away from us, and that one of our most terrifying challenges is to confront the gap that frequently emerges between the lives we wanted and the lives we lived. Beatrice and Axl wanted to live a life of love, of fidelity, of promises kept.

Their final reckoning, which the novel presents as the most important of their lives, is personal. In every way that counts, they are able to remember their past in a way that remains faithful to the love they believe they’ve shared. This is despite the specter of personal betrayal: memories of infidelity haunt Beatrice, making her dread what she will recall when the mist of forgetfulness lifts and she recovers a full account of their marriage. Through the tenderness of their sustained care for one another, however, Ishiguro’s novel suggests that a continued bond of intimacy will protect the love between Beatrice and Axl, notwithstanding the individual failings that have emerged over time.

Axl, too, is dogged by the past, but the events that return to him almost as waking dreams pose an even greater threat to the love he has shared with Beatrice. When he recalls his experience in Arthur’s court, wherein he served as an ambassador who forwarded a plan for peace between the Britons and Saxons, it is a history of horrific betrayal. Axl assured the leaders of Saxon villages that there would be peace, yet his very identity is upended when he understands that Arthur’s knights have used the cease in hostilities to gain a tactical advantage, and that the king he serves has authorized the slaughter of “their women, children, and elderly, left unprotected after our solemn agreement not to harm them…even the smallest babes” in order, Gawain avers, “for peace to prevail” (212;213). The dragon and the mist she produces is part of Merlin’s design to impose a permanent peace, since, if no one remembers the bloodshed, no one can plot to avenge past wrongs.

It is only in this larger historical context that Wistan’s advice to Edmund makes the slightest bit of sense. Otherwise, how could he instruct the young warrior to be unkind to Britons if the two principal Britons Edmund knows are Beatrice and Axl? The old couple has been unfailingly generous, and they are certainly fonder of him than the villagers who would have seen Edmund killed or exiled on account of the strange bite he bears. They are definitely less treacherous than the scheming monks who seek to murder Edwin and Wistan after taking in the party of beleaguered travelers. If they don’t know that Edmund bears a dragon’s bite, they nevertheless treat his drive to find Merlin’s creature as part of a quest they are willing to join.

The warrior’s instructions to Edwin, however, insist that the kindly old Britons’ participation in history is less than benign. Even if Axl was an agent of good in Arthur’s court, he and Beatrice are complicit in a program of violence that has ensconced their cultural privilege as Britons. If lasting peace benefitted Saxons, as Gawain claims, it did not do so equally, or so Wistan’s desire to kill the dragon indicates. With Wistan’s quest to kill the dragon, along with his program to train Edwin as an agent of vengeance who will revisit recovered wrongs, Ishiguro evokes a larger and more difficult history of racialized oppression, one that is more uncomfortable because it cannot be dismissed as part of Britain’s medieval past.

It might seem obvious that the dragon must be slain, since robbing entire peoples of their collective memories is patently unjust. Beatrice and Axl show, too, the personal stakes of this larger injustice. Yet the violence that the dragon’s death promises to unleash is a complicating aspect of Ishiguro’s medievalized rendering of memory, identity, and history. Wouldn’t it be better, the story asks, for certain aspects of the past to be forgotten? Even if Arthur broke the treaty between peoples, using magic to obscure the slaughter that he and his men undertook against the Saxons, the renewal of common hatred will bring yet more suffering to this fantasized territory. Fears over what we might uncover when we reckon with the past are central to Ishiguro’s novel. These fears, I want to suggest, are not part of a simplified medievalism that Ishiguro uses to obscure his engagement with racialized violence of more recent vintage.[3] In fact, as someone for whom racial violence is part of a recent family history, I can say that Ishiguro’s novel raises terrifying questions about how and when we bring such wrongs to light.

I remember looking through the photos my grandmother kept in a former cake tin, discovering, when I was old enough to notice, a part of my family’s history that is always present and ever hidden: it was a sepia picture of a black man, hanging from a tree by a noose, with a crowd of Sunday-dressed white people fanning out around the murder scene. When I went to my mother, she explained that the photo was of a lynching, and that my teenaged grandfather was somewhere in that crowd. I don’t remember how she presented this story to me, but I do recall how it filled me with shame. I’ve tried to process this part of my family’s history ever since, and, after talking about this episode with a friend, she sent me to the haunting story by James Baldwin, “Going to Meet the Man.”[4]

Baldwin describes the torture and murder of a black man by a white lynch mob in graphic detail, showing the ways that white supremacy and patriarchal privilege converge: the narrator is sexually empowered by the degrading violence he remembers witnessing as a boy. In that instance, the white townspeople dress as if they are going to church, and the narrator recalls that his mother “was more beautiful than he had ever seen her, and more strange. He began to feel a joy he had never felt before” (1760). The young boy, who witnesses this gruesome enactment of white supremacy, knows that the disgusting murder he watches is part of his initiation into a circle of love. The boy is part of a community, one where he experiences love because he assumes a mantle of hatred. As he concludes, “At that moment [the narrator] loved his father more than he had ever loved him. He felt that his father had carried him through a mighty test, had revealed to him a great secret which would be the key to his life forever” (1760-1).[5]

I’m certain my mother offered me a similar invitation when she explained the photo I showed her. Were I to take on the version of whiteness that this photo endorsed, I would be part of “our family,” included in a terrible history held together in violence, secrecy, shame, and affection. Though I struggle to remember her account in this instance, there have been other such invitations, which I’ve sardonically labeled, “Welcome to Whiteness” moments, and I know I’m not alone in being told, often through difficult, traumatic stories of the past, how racial difference works, and how I am supposed to align myself given certain historical divides. In his memoir, Fear and What Follows: The Violent Education of a Christian Racist (2013), Tim Parrish movingly describes his white-supremacism as a teenager as part of pressure to fulfill certain expectations for masculinity prized by his father, grandfather, and other male relatives in south Louisiana.[6] It was only as he grew older that he understood how his love had been coopted to promote a racial hatred he knew he had to abandon.

At the level of personal, family history, my first impulse is to see Wistan’s instructions to Edwin in this light: when the warrior elicits a promise from Edwin, he pressures the young man to perpetuate old hatred in exchange for, and as a sign of, affection: “We’ve a duty to hate every man, woman, and child of their blood. So promise me this. Should I fall before I pass to you my skills, promise me you’ll tend well this hatred in your heart. And should it ever flicker or threaten to die, shield it with care till the flame takes hold again” (242). To live up to the warrior ideal that Wistan instills, furthermore, is to take on certain enmities, even those with which Edwin has no experience, and for which he supposedly has no cause. Edwin puzzles over Wistan’s instructions, “Must I hate a Briton who shares with me his bread?” (242), seemingly confirming their misplaced, outmoded violence. Heroic masculinity passes on a legacy of hatred and violence that continues, perhaps entrenches, old injustices.

Yet Edwin’s personal history suggests another reading as well: the voice of the young man’s “mother,” which the dragon uses to draw Edwin to her over the course of the novel, recounts a disturbing, haunting story of violation that makes Wistan’s instructions personally relevant. Through the dragon’s prompting, “Find the strength and come rescue me,” we learn that Edwin’s mother was taken by a band of men (87, et passim). The voice Edwin hears urges him to rescue her, but, through Wistan’s questioning, it becomes clear she is beyond recovery: “It was Britons took your mother and mine” (242). She was taken by passing Briton men in the same fashion as Wistan’s mother. That these two warriors share this experience as a common point in their personal histories is not coincidental; rather, it suggests a sustained practice, a naturalization of systemic violence—the plunder of bodies viewed as disposable on account of a racialized history of difference—that the Saxons remain subjected to even in this period of “peace” with Britons.

This history of systemic, habitual violation—which in this story is so marginalized that it is never fully articulated—should, I propose, connect The Buried Giant to more recent responses to racial injustice. In a moving address to his son, which, in its form, eloquence, and passion is a tribute to Baldwin’s The Fire Next Time (1963), Ta-Nehisi Coates protests “the plunder of black life” that has distinguished white privilege in the U.S (111). Between the World and Me (2015) details the casual, quotidian violence that African-Americans continue to experience, but Coates also identifies the ways that “those Americans who believe that they are white” stake their supremacy on an assumption that no one sees the degradations they perpetrate as meaningful violence (6, et passim), or the kind of violation that might warrant retribution, or at least restitution.[7]

Unlike Wistan, Coates never suggests that the hatred visited upon African-American men be returned in kind; rather, with the defining question that he poses to his son, “how one should live within a black body” (12), he bolsters the profound case he makes for reparations as a belated acknowledgment of slavery as plunder of a fundamentally material kind.[8] With his cautionary advice to his son, “The entire narrative of this country argues against the truth of who you are” (99), Coates details the systemic damage that violence against individual bodies perpetrates against an entire people. Importantly, Coates uncovers a structural connection between individual acts of violence and national histories of oppression. This is an idea Coates and Ishiguro share, I want to suggest. If we think it is inapposite or inappropriate to connect an Arthurian tale of legendary betrayal to the lived history of chattel slavery, a return to Edwin’s experiences in Ishiguro’s novel demonstrates why certain histories cannot be suppressed, even in the name of broader peace. The story I’ve presented, above, of a photograph that reveals my family’s history of racial violence, is not really our history at all.

Or, rather, it is not simply or only my family’s history. As Daina Ramey Berry has observed, the fetish objects of white terror are actually artefacts of other family histories, most of which are now lost: the restoration of the skull of Nat Turner to his family comes after “[t]he skull had been kept as a relic, sold and probably handed down through generations, for nearly 185 years.” It is only because Nat Turner is known to history that, as Berry remarks, “Turner’s family will have the opportunity to lay their famous relative to rest.”[9] The photo my family kept attests to the perpetuation of white supremacy through familial histories, but, and I’ve come to see this as more important on account of The Buried Giant, that photo is also the last evidence of what happened to someone’s father, brother, or son. This photo really—or at least equally—should have belonged to someone else, the family of a man whose individual identity is lost to a broader history of racial oppression. 

I don’t know who the man in that picture is, and, even if I could find the photo (my grandmother’s belongings were scattered when her house fell to pieces after her health’s demise—more on that little tidbit of the past in a future post), I don’t know how to find the man’s family. Not coincidentally, I think, Ishiguro deals with this confusion: much of the novel involves Axl and Beatrice’s search for their son, as well as their inability to recall the intimate details that might lead them back to the narrative thread of the life they shared together. Loss, even the most personal loss, happens in the shadow of broader historical events, and Ishiguro’s novel explores an equally important dimension of personal memory and its attendant losses that I don’t even touch in this post.

But again, as I want to suggest, The Buried Giant shows that destruction of families happens as a consequence of broader violence, and it is a larger history of racial oppression in the American south that prevents my complete reckoning with this past. This is because the county where my grandfather grew up—Kemper County, Mississippi—had the second highest rate of documented lynchings in the state between 1877 and 1950.[10] Murders like the one featured in this photo were not unknown, and not uncommon, in this area. The only thing I have come to understand, and again, one might say in an unlikely fashion, is that the white people in pictures from this era should not remain anonymous, lost to the collective haze of cultural memory featured in Ishiguro’s Buried Giant. Covering over such histories might keep the peace, but losing these memories also perpetuates violation.

Wistan urges Edwin to vengeance because the violence against the Saxons has never ceased. When Axl remembers what the Britons did, he knows that war will return to this martial landscape. This is a grim conclusion, but it is one that follows from the systemic, calculated campaign of oppression that the Britons have instituted and maintained across this novel’s history. That Axl recognizes and understands the consequences of this campaign is the most hopeful aspect of this ending. Therefore, by identifying the injustice that extends from Arthur to Merlin to Gawain to the dragon herself, Axl suggests that histories of oppression might be recollected and redressed. Doing so might involve pain—perhaps it will even warrant vengeance—but the violation can stop with a reckoning that refuses to bury difficult elements of a shared past.

Following the election of Donald J. Trump as president, “crunkadelic” at the Crunk Feminist Collective urged white readers to “Get your people.”[11] After the white supremacist march and murder in Charlottesville, people of color have expressed further frustration that the labor—emotional as well as physical—required to change racist attitudes and practices in this country falls on those who continue to be victimized by these very forms of violence. As Sa’iyda Shabazz remarked in a moment of exasperation, “White folks, this is your mess to clean up. Y’all created it. Y’all need to fix it.[12] I suggest that this gathering, this reckoning, requires a longer view, one that addresses how systemic oppression gets mystified—and then forgotten—by those it benefits.

The task of white allies is not, as Shannon Sullivan makes clear in her sharp analysis, Good White People (2014), “to let white people off the racist hook that they’ve hung themselves on” (10). It is, as Sullivan argues, to change whiteness through what she characterizes as a “loving” reassessment and reinscription.[13] This is not to treat whiteness as a source only of benighted shame; instead, it is to acknowledge the painful injustices entailed by whiteness so that these cannot be appropriated by a new generation of white supremacists. In something of an irony, it is to claim those racist histories so that they cannot be redeployed by those seeking to perpetuate the violence and plunder that has characterized whiteness in this country.

Facing up to my family’s perpetuation of racist violence does not excuse me from that history of violence. This is not a redemptive reckoning: white woman gets real about her racist relatives. Rather, it is to say that I’m recalling this past to fight for a new history, one that, as Noel Ignatiev has long argued, might amount to abolishing what we have heretofore thought of as whiteness.[14] Yet, here again, medieval studies is instructive: medievalists—especially those who study “medievalism,” or the reinvention of the Middle Ages for later periods—are fighting the good fight to make sure that white supremacists remain unable to appropriate the field.[15] When white supremacists seek to ground their hatred in the Middle Ages, or use symbols and stories from that era to galvanize their violence, historians, religious studies scholars, and literary critics have all worked to demystify these moves, by calling them out as a practice of racist violence that is deliberately unfaithful to the medieval past.

As a medievalist, and as someone whose relatives are the white people in pictures from our nation’s racist past, I suggest that white allies need to do the same. Not by forgetting, and not by using the mists of myth to obscure the violence entailed by a particular, personal history of violence. In her urgent call to action, “Teaching Medieval Studies in a Time of White Supremacy,” Dorothy Kim rightly remarks, “Neutrality is not optional.”[16] As The Buried Giant reveals, to conclude with a return to my personally inflected response to Ishiguro’s latest novel, forgetting, mystifying, or covering history in familial or regional myth only serves to perpetuate racialized violence and erase its victims.

[1] For examples, see Neil Gaiman, “Kazuo Ishiguro’s ‘The Buried Giant,’” (https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/01/books/review/kazuo-ishiguros-the-buried-giant.html); Tom Holland, “The Buried Giant review – Kazuo Ishiguro ventures into Tolkien territory,” (https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/mar/04/the-buried-giant-review-kazuo-ishiguro-tolkien-britain-mythical-past); and James Wood, “The Uses of Oblivion: Kazuo Ishiguro’s “The Buried Giant.” (https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/03/23/the-uses-of-oblivion).

[2] Kazuo Ishiguro, The Buried Giant (New York: Knopf, 2015). All parenthetical citations are from this edition.

[3] In an extremely helpful post, David Matthews, “Exhuming the Giant” (http://newchaucersociety.org/blog/entry/exhuming-the-giant), sets Ishiguro’s novel in a context of earlier medievalisms and the genre of the novel, concluding, “What critics have missed about The Buried Giant is that we are now far beyond the comforting nostalgia in which so much medievalist narrative was characteristically invested.”

[4] Thanks to Gretchen Woertendyke for helping me make this connection.

[5] James Baldwin, “Going to Meet the Man,” The Norton Anthology of African American Literature, 2nd Ed., Ed. Henry Louis Gates, et. Al. (New York: Norton, 2004). All parenthetical citations are from this edition.

[6] Tim Parrish, Fear and What Follows: The Violent Education of a Christian Racist, A Memoir (Oxford: University of Mississippi Press, 2013).

[7]Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me (New York: Spiegel and Grau, 2015). All parenthetical citations are from this edition.

[8] https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/

[9] https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/18/opinion/nat-turners-skull-and-my-students-purse-of-skin.html

[10] Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror. SUPPLEMENT: Lynchings by County, Second Edition (Equal Justice Initiative, 122 Commerce Street,

Montgomery, Alabama 36104. www.eji.org). [p. 5].

[11] http://www.crunkfeministcollective.com/2016/11/09/get-your-people/

[12] https://theestablishment.co/white-people-we-cant-dismantle-trump-and-racism-without-you-e408d1415739

[13] Shannon Sullivan, Good White People: The Problem with Middle-Class White Anti-Racism (Albany, NY: SUNY Press 2014).

[14] https://www.harvardmagazine.com/2002/09/abolish-the-white-race.html

[15] https://www.publicmedievalist.com/race-racism-middle-ages-toc/

[16] http://www.inthemedievalmiddle.com/2017/08/teaching-medieval-studies-in-time-of.html.

 

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

White People in Pictures: Forgetting Histories and Kazuo Ishiguro’s "The Buried Giant"

April 2, 2018 - 14:41

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Since the release of The Buried Giant (2015), several friends have asked me what I think of the novel. That’s because I’m a medievalist. Without skipping a beat, I’ve replied that I love the novel. But that’s not because I’m a medievalist. Or, as I’ve explained, my reasons for being challenged and enthralled by the loosely Arthurian narrative are not due to its explicit engagements with the period I study. And, though I smirked when an aged Sir Gawain made his appearance, and though I thought it clever that Arthur’s finest knight maintained an affectionate bond with his elderly horse (called Homer in this quest narrative), for me these details simply revealed Ishiguro’s participation in a long literary tradition of representing heroic masculinity. As it turns out, though, and in a way that I could only realize since the novel’s 2015 release, heroic masculinity’s historical trajectory connects points of my past to other pasts in ways that I’ve never before acknowledged.

All along, my enthusiasm for the novel derived from issues that have long made me an Ishiguro fan: the tangled imbrication of history, memory, and identity remains a characteristic concern in a work that many reviewers have treated as a radical departure.[1] Like he does in his earlier novels, Ishiguro continues to think through the effects of scale on the stories we tell: how do local histories get articulated in relation to more extended sequences of events? How do our memories of particular experiences get resignified when they are viewed in a broader historical context? And, finally, how do our ideas about difference change when they are moved from the personal to the national domain? In ways I had not fully admitted to myself, this last question, the relationship between alterity, collectivity, and intimacy, does indeed relate to my area of study, and in ways that make studying and teaching the Middle Ages—in all its fictionalized instantiations—even more crucial in this fraught cultural moment.

Late in the story, when the warrior Wistan asks the young Edmund to “hate the Briton” (242;243; 301), he throws into question the entire history of the novel itself.[2] Since this is a novel that features an aged pair of protagonists who struggle to remember anything about their past, it is an understatement to say that this history is hard-won. If the recollective wanderings of Axl and Beatrice have taught us anything (and this is a novel one must learn to read), it is that the lives we hope we are leading sometimes slip away from us, and that one of our most terrifying challenges is to confront the gap that frequently emerges between the lives we wanted and the lives we lived. Beatrice and Axl wanted to live a life of love, of fidelity, of promises kept.

Their final reckoning, which the novel presents as the most important of their lives, is personal. In every way that counts, they are able to remember their past in a way that remains faithful to the love they believe they’ve shared. This is despite the specter of personal betrayal: memories of infidelity haunt Beatrice, making her dread what she will recall when the mist of forgetfulness lifts and she recovers a full account of their marriage. Through the tenderness of their sustained care for one another, however, Ishiguro’s novel suggests that a continued bond of intimacy will protect the love between Beatrice and Axl, notwithstanding the individual failings that have emerged over time.

Axl, too, is dogged by the past, but the events that return to him almost as waking dreams pose an even greater threat to the love he has shared with Beatrice. When he recalls his experience in Arthur’s court, wherein he served as an ambassador who forwarded a plan for peace between the Britons and Saxons, it is a history of horrific betrayal. Axl assured the leaders of Saxon villages that there would be peace, yet his very identity is upended when he understands that Arthur’s knights have used the cease in hostilities to gain a tactical advantage, and that the king he serves has authorized the slaughter of “their women, children, and elderly, left unprotected after our solemn agreement not to harm them…even the smallest babes” in order, Gawain avers, “for peace to prevail” (212;213). The dragon and the mist she produces is part of Merlin’s design to impose a permanent peace, since, if no one remembers the bloodshed, no one can plot to avenge past wrongs.

It is only in this larger historical context that Wistan’s advice to Edmund makes the slightest bit of sense. Otherwise, how could he instruct the young warrior to be unkind to Britons if the two principal Britons Edmund knows are Beatrice and Axl? The old couple has been unfailingly generous, and they are certainly fonder of him than the villagers who would have seen Edmund killed or exiled on account of the strange bite he bears. They are definitely less treacherous than the scheming monks who seek to murder Edwin and Wistan after taking in the party of beleaguered travelers. If they don’t know that Edmund bears a dragon’s bite, they nevertheless treat his drive to find Merlin’s creature as part of a quest they are willing to join.

The warrior’s instructions to Edwin, however, insist that the kindly old Britons’ participation in history is less than benign. Even if Axl was an agent of good in Arthur’s court, he and Beatrice are complicit in a program of violence that has ensconced their cultural privilege as Britons. If lasting peace benefitted Saxons, as Gawain claims, it did not do so equally, or so Wistan’s desire to kill the dragon indicates. With Wistan’s quest to kill the dragon, along with his program to train Edwin as an agent of vengeance who will revisit recovered wrongs, Ishiguro evokes a larger and more difficult history of racialized oppression, one that is more uncomfortable because it cannot be dismissed as part of Britain’s medieval past.

It might seem obvious that the dragon must be slain, since robbing entire peoples of their collective memories is patently unjust. Beatrice and Axl show, too, the personal stakes of this larger injustice. Yet the violence that the dragon’s death promises to unleash is a complicating aspect of Ishiguro’s medievalized rendering of memory, identity, and history. Wouldn’t it be better, the story asks, for certain aspects of the past to be forgotten? Even if Arthur broke the treaty between peoples, using magic to obscure the slaughter that he and his men undertook against the Saxons, the renewal of common hatred will bring yet more suffering to this fantasized territory. Fears over what we might uncover when we reckon with the past are central to Ishiguro’s novel. These fears, I want to suggest, are not part of a simplified medievalism that Ishiguro uses to obscure his engagement with racialized violence of more recent vintage.[3] In fact, as someone for whom racial violence is part of a recent family history, I can say that Ishiguro’s novel raises terrifying questions about how and when we bring such wrongs to light.

I remember looking through the photos my grandmother kept in a former cake tin, discovering, when I was old enough to notice, a part of my family’s history that is always present and ever hidden: it was a sepia picture of a black man, hanging from a tree by a noose, with a crowd of Sunday-dressed white people fanning out around the murder scene. When I went to my mother, she explained that the photo was of a lynching, and that my teenaged grandfather was somewhere in that crowd. I don’t remember how she presented this story to me, but I do recall how it filled me with shame. I’ve tried to process this part of my family’s history ever since, and, after talking about this episode with a friend, she sent me to the haunting story by James Baldwin, “Going to Meet the Man.”[4]

Baldwin describes the torture and murder of a black man by a white lynch mob in graphic detail, showing the ways that white supremacy and patriarchal privilege converge: the narrator is sexually empowered by the degrading violence he remembers witnessing as a boy. In that instance, the white townspeople dress as if they are going to church, and the narrator recalls that his mother “was more beautiful than he had ever seen her, and more strange. He began to feel a joy he had never felt before” (1760). The young boy, who witnesses this gruesome enactment of white supremacy, knows that the disgusting murder he watches is part of his initiation into a circle of love. The boy is part of a community, one where he experiences love because he assumes a mantle of hatred. As he concludes, “At that moment [the narrator] loved his father more than he had ever loved him. He felt that his father had carried him through a mighty test, had revealed to him a great secret which would be the key to his life forever” (1760-1).[5]

I’m certain my mother offered me a similar invitation when she explained the photo I showed her. Were I to take on the version of whiteness that this photo endorsed, I would be part of “our family,” included in a terrible history held together in violence, secrecy, shame, and affection. Though I struggle to remember her account in this instance, there have been other such invitations, which I’ve sardonically labeled, “Welcome to Whiteness” moments, and I know I’m not alone in being told, often through difficult, traumatic stories of the past, how racial difference works, and how I am supposed to align myself given certain historical divides. In his memoir, Fear and What Follows: The Violent Education of a Christian Racist (2013), Tim Parrish movingly describes his white-supremacism as a teenager as part of pressure to fulfill certain expectations for masculinity prized by his father, grandfather, and other male relatives in south Louisiana.[6] It was only as he grew older that he understood how his love had been coopted to promote a racial hatred he knew he had to abandon.

At the level of personal, family history, my first impulse is to see Wistan’s instructions to Edwin in this light: when the warrior elicits a promise from Edwin, he pressures the young man to perpetuate old hatred in exchange for, and as a sign of, affection: “We’ve a duty to hate every man, woman, and child of their blood. So promise me this. Should I fall before I pass to you my skills, promise me you’ll tend well this hatred in your heart. And should it ever flicker or threaten to die, shield it with care till the flame takes hold again” (242). To live up to the warrior ideal that Wistan instills, furthermore, is to take on certain enmities, even those with which Edwin has no experience, and for which he supposedly has no cause. Edwin puzzles over Wistan’s instructions, “Must I hate a Briton who shares with me his bread?” (242), seemingly confirming their misplaced, outmoded violence. Heroic masculinity passes on a legacy of hatred and violence that continues, perhaps entrenches, old injustices.

Yet Edwin’s personal history suggests another reading as well: the voice of the young man’s “mother,” which the dragon uses to draw Edwin to her over the course of the novel, recounts a disturbing, haunting story of violation that makes Wistan’s instructions personally relevant. Through the dragon’s prompting, “Find the strength and come rescue me,” we learn that Edwin’s mother was taken by a band of men (87, et passim). The voice Edwin hears urges him to rescue her, but, through Wistan’s questioning, it becomes clear she is beyond recovery: “It was Britons took your mother and mine” (242). She was taken by passing Briton men in the same fashion as Wistan’s mother. That these two warriors share this experience as a common point in their personal histories is not coincidental; rather, it suggests a sustained practice, a naturalization of systemic violence—the plunder of bodies viewed as disposable on account of a racialized history of difference—that the Saxons remain subjected to even in this period of “peace” with Britons.

This history of systemic, habitual violation—which in this story is so marginalized that it is never fully articulated—should, I propose, connect The Buried Giant to more recent responses to racial injustice. In a moving address to his son, which, in its form, eloquence, and passion is a tribute to Baldwin’s The Fire Next Time (1963), Ta-Nehisi Coates protests “the plunder of black life” that has distinguished white privilege in the U.S (111). Between the World and Me (2015) details the casual, quotidian violence that African-Americans continue to experience, but Coates also identifies the ways that “those Americans who believe that they are white” stake their supremacy on an assumption that no one sees the degradations they perpetrate as meaningful violence (6, et passim), or the kind of violation that might warrant retribution, or at least restitution.[7]

Unlike Wistan, Coates never suggests that the hatred visited upon African-American men be returned in kind; rather, with the defining question that he poses to his son, “how one should live within a black body” (12), he bolsters the profound case he makes for reparations as a belated acknowledgment of slavery as plunder of a fundamentally material kind.[8] With his cautionary advice to his son, “The entire narrative of this country argues against the truth of who you are” (99), Coates details the systemic damage that violence against individual bodies perpetrates against an entire people. Importantly, Coates uncovers a structural connection between individual acts of violence and national histories of oppression. This is an idea Coates and Ishiguro share, I want to suggest. If we think it is inapposite or inappropriate to connect an Arthurian tale of legendary betrayal to the lived history of chattel slavery, a return to Edwin’s experiences in Ishiguro’s novel demonstrates why certain histories cannot be suppressed, even in the name of broader peace. The story I’ve presented, above, of a photograph that reveals my family’s history of racial violence, is not really our history at all.

Or, rather, it is not simply or only my family’s history. As Daina Ramey Berry has observed, the fetish objects of white terror are actually artefacts of other family histories, most of which are now lost: the restoration of the skull of Nat Turner to his family comes after “[t]he skull had been kept as a relic, sold and probably handed down through generations, for nearly 185 years.” It is only because Nat Turner is known to history that, as Berry remarks, “Turner’s family will have the opportunity to lay their famous relative to rest.”[9] The photo my family kept attests to the perpetuation of white supremacy through familial histories, but, and I’ve come to see this as more important on account of The Buried Giant, that photo is also the last evidence of what happened to someone’s father, brother, or son. This photo really—or at least equally—should have belonged to someone else, the family of a man whose individual identity is lost to a broader history of racial oppression. 

I don’t know who the man in that picture is, and, even if I could find the photo (my grandmother’s belongings were scattered when her house fell to pieces after her health’s demise—more on that little tidbit of the past in a future post), I don’t know how to find the man’s family. Not coincidentally, I think, Ishiguro deals with this confusion: much of the novel involves Axl and Beatrice’s search for their son, as well as their inability to recall the intimate details that might lead them back to the narrative thread of the life they shared together. Loss, even the most personal loss, happens in the shadow of broader historical events, and Ishiguro’s novel explores an equally important dimension of personal memory and its attendant losses that I don’t even touch in this post.

But again, as I want to suggest, The Buried Giant shows that destruction of families happens as a consequence of broader violence, and it is a larger history of racial oppression in the American south that prevents my complete reckoning with this past. This is because the county where my grandfather grew up—Kemper County, Mississippi—had the second highest rate of documented lynchings in the state between 1877 and 1950.[10] Murders like the one featured in this photo were not unknown, and not uncommon, in this area. The only thing I have come to understand, and again, one might say in an unlikely fashion, is that the white people in pictures from this era should not remain anonymous, lost to the collective haze of cultural memory featured in Ishiguro’s Buried Giant. Covering over such histories might keep the peace, but losing these memories also perpetuates violation.

Wistan urges Edwin to vengeance because the violence against the Saxons has never ceased. When Axl remembers what the Britons did, he knows that war will return to this martial landscape. This is a grim conclusion, but it is one that follows from the systemic, calculated campaign of oppression that the Britons have instituted and maintained across this novel’s history. That Axl recognizes and understands the consequences of this campaign is the most hopeful aspect of this ending. Therefore, by identifying the injustice that extends from Arthur to Merlin to Gawain to the dragon herself, Axl suggests that histories of oppression might be recollected and redressed. Doing so might involve pain—perhaps it will even warrant vengeance—but the violation can stop with a reckoning that refuses to bury difficult elements of a shared past.

Following the election of Donald J. Trump as president, “crunkadelic” at the Crunk Feminist Collective urged white readers to “Get your people.”[11] After the white supremacist march and murder in Charlottesville, people of color have expressed further frustration that the labor—emotional as well as physical—required to change racist attitudes and practices in this country falls on those who continue to be victimized by these very forms of violence. As Sa’iyda Shabazz remarked in a moment of exasperation, “White folks, this is your mess to clean up. Y’all created it. Y’all need to fix it.[12] I suggest that this gathering, this reckoning, requires a longer view, one that addresses how systemic oppression gets mystified—and then forgotten—by those it benefits.

The task of white allies is not, as Shannon Sullivan makes clear in her sharp analysis, Good White People (2014), “to let white people off the racist hook that they’ve hung themselves on” (10). It is, as Sullivan argues, to change whiteness through what she characterizes as a “loving” reassessment and reinscription.[13] This is not to treat whiteness as a source only of benighted shame; instead, it is to acknowledge the painful injustices entailed by whiteness so that these cannot be appropriated by a new generation of white supremacists. In something of an irony, it is to claim those racist histories so that they cannot be redeployed by those seeking to perpetuate the violence and plunder that has characterized whiteness in this country.

Facing up to my family’s perpetuation of racist violence does not excuse me from that history of violence. This is not a redemptive reckoning: white woman gets real about her racist relatives. Rather, it is to say that I’m recalling this past to fight for a new history, one that, as Noel Ignatiev has long argued, might amount to abolishing what we have heretofore thought of as whiteness.[14] Yet, here again, medieval studies is instructive: medievalists—especially those who study “medievalism,” or the reinvention of the Middle Ages for later periods—are fighting the good fight to make sure that white supremacists remain unable to appropriate the field.[15] When white supremacists seek to ground their hatred in the Middle Ages, or use symbols and stories from that era to galvanize their violence, historians, religious studies scholars, and literary critics have all worked to demystify these moves, by calling them out as a practice of racist violence that is deliberately unfaithful to the medieval past.

As a medievalist, and as someone whose relatives are the white people in pictures from our nation’s racist past, I suggest that white allies need to do the same. Not by forgetting, and not by using the mists of myth to obscure the violence entailed by a particular, personal history of violence. In her urgent call to action, “Teaching Medieval Studies in a Time of White Supremacy,” Dorothy Kim rightly remarks, “Neutrality is not optional.”[16] As The Buried Giant reveals, to conclude with a return to my personally inflected response to Ishiguro’s latest novel, forgetting, mystifying, or covering history in familial or regional myth only serves to perpetuate racialized violence and erase its victims.

[1] For examples, see Neil Gaiman, “Kazuo Ishiguro’s ‘The Buried Giant,’” (https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/01/books/review/kazuo-ishiguros-the-buried-giant.html); Tom Holland, “The Buried Giant review – Kazuo Ishiguro ventures into Tolkien territory,” (https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/mar/04/the-buried-giant-review-kazuo-ishiguro-tolkien-britain-mythical-past); and James Wood, “The Uses of Oblivion: Kazuo Ishiguro’s “The Buried Giant.” (https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/03/23/the-uses-of-oblivion).

[2] Kazuo Ishiguro, The Buried Giant (New York: Knopf, 2015). All parenthetical citations are from this edition.

[3] In an extremely helpful post, David Matthews, “Exhuming the Giant” (http://newchaucersociety.org/blog/entry/exhuming-the-giant), sets Ishiguro’s novel in a context of earlier medievalisms and the genre of the novel, concluding, “What critics have missed about The Buried Giant is that we are now far beyond the comforting nostalgia in which so much medievalist narrative was characteristically invested.”

[4] Thanks to Gretchen Woertendyke for helping me make this connection.

[5] James Baldwin, “Going to Meet the Man,” The Norton Anthology of African American Literature, 2nd Ed., Ed. Henry Louis Gates, et. Al. (New York: Norton, 2004). All parenthetical citations are from this edition.

[6] Tim Parrish, Fear and What Follows: The Violent Education of a Christian Racist, A Memoir (Oxford: University of Mississippi Press, 2013).

[7]Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me (New York: Spiegel and Grau, 2015). All parenthetical citations are from this edition.

[8] https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/

[9] https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/18/opinion/nat-turners-skull-and-my-students-purse-of-skin.html

[10] Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror. SUPPLEMENT: Lynchings by County, Second Edition (Equal Justice Initiative, 122 Commerce Street,

Montgomery, Alabama 36104. www.eji.org). [p. 5].

[11] http://www.crunkfeministcollective.com/2016/11/09/get-your-people/

[12] https://theestablishment.co/white-people-we-cant-dismantle-trump-and-racism-without-you-e408d1415739

[13] Shannon Sullivan, Good White People: The Problem with Middle-Class White Anti-Racism (Albany, NY: SUNY Press 2014).

[14] https://www.harvardmagazine.com/2002/09/abolish-the-white-race.html

[15] https://www.publicmedievalist.com/race-racism-middle-ages-toc/

[16] http://www.inthemedievalmiddle.com/2017/08/teaching-medieval-studies-in-time-of.html.

 

Whence Newton in the Seventeenth-Century Afro-American Tropics?

March 22, 2018 - 13:21
Tags:  Caribbean, Colonial Period, slavery, medicine, History of Science

Pablo Gómez’s The Experiential Caribbean identifies healers in seventeenth-century Cartagena and Tierra Firme who produced early-modern epistemologies comparable to those of Bacon, Newton and the Royal Society in London and Cambridge. Both groups privileged empiricism over dogma, the materiality of the experiential over the metaphysical, the utilitarian and the pragmatic over the theoretical. Yet Gómez’s Cartageneros thrived in a milieu characterized by death, slavery, deracination, and migration. Cartageneros were also blacks.

Gómez’s Caribbean is one in which tens of thousands of Africans disembarked every year to become household slaves. This was not a society of integrated plantations but of slaves-for-hire in a commercial hub. Cartagenero slaves did not necessarily live under their master’s roof. Slaves were sailors, traders, artisans, and, most important, itinerant healers. This was a world in which first generation African slaves could save, self-purchase manumit, and become vecinos and settlers. Africans could also achieve citizenship by running away to maroon communities. After resisting military campaigns, maroons often signed treaties; ran-away slaves could therefore become vecinos of autonomous towns.

Gómez zeroes in on Cartagenero black healers to demonstrate that these practitioners, called Mohanes, developed languages of the “experiential” to address the cosmopolies that was Cartagena, a veritable Babel where slaves spoke more than 70 languages as they came from all regions of West Africa, from Cacheu to Benguela. There were also Europeans of all nationalities as well as the survivors of a variety of indigenous communities.

These deracinated cosmopolitans, however, could not communicate through the language of dominant medical doctrines. Healers did not seek to explore the black box that was the body. Galenic medicine offered a hydraulic model in which four bodily fluids were in constant transmutation. Diet, climate, sleep, sexual activity, and exercise could alter this hydraulic equilibrium; so too could enemas, leeches, and emetics. Yet Galenic medicine was just one of many models striving for attention among Mohanes in the medical bazaar that was Cartagena. Practitioners were promiscuous in their eclecticism. Practice was not subordinated to the creation of systems; rather systems were subordinated to the specificities and contingencies of each individual case

How did healers communicate to individuals and communities the nature of disease wrecking the body within? Gómez’s contends that black practitioners spoke through the performance of materiality. As bundles of strange objects emerged from cavities onto the surface of bodies, audiences were exposed to the unintelligible mechanics of the body. Practitioners communicated with patients by smelling, tasting, and touching. Mohanes did not seek to be understood by their audiences. They uttered strange sounds in obscure languages. Unintelligibility was the very source of their authority. What most mattered was the materiality of the performance itself.

Gómez emphasizes that healers built huge pharmacopoeias without seeking to identify the universal properties of each drug. Healers manipulated materia medica in the same way that they consumed theories: each substance was deployed to address the individuality of the contingent. In short, there was no search for a language of the universal. The world of Mohanes was a world of particulars.

Yet performance was also a theater of the social. Mohanes cured the body by curing the body polity. Gómez insists that Mohanes were attuned to conflict within communities and saw equilibrium within the body as social peace. Bodily purges in rituals were symbolical exercises to identify troublemakers or to excise miscreants. These healers were powerful because they were dexterous readers of the palimpsest of the social.

Finally, Gómez also argues that authority came from the miraculous and the marvelous. Practitioners built epistemological authority in displays of preternatural power, not supernatural ones. In fact, practitioners adamantly denied any intervention in the realm of the supernatural when providing testimony to the Inquisition.

Remarkably, Christian bishops seeking relief from disease relied on those very black practitioners the bishops themselves had found guilty and condemned. Gómez offers many examples of practitioners that the Inquisition scattered into hospitals all over the urban landscape. Black practitioners used the massive infrastructure of charitable hospices and hostels, originally created to tend to the poor and the infirm, to peddle their wares.

Gómez follows one hundred Mohanes over the course of the seventeenth century through the archives of the Inquisition. Yet Gómez’s is not the story of victimized slaves disciplined by both physical coercion and ideologies of racial subordination. He repurposes documents on alleged black wizards and sorcerers to claim that these healers were among the most creative and powerful intellectuals of the global early-modern period. This upsets powerful and normative historiographies in both Latin American history and the history of science, therein lies the power of this study.

There are patterns, however, that indicate that the black practitioners of his story might have not been as exceptional and as modern as Gómez suggests. He follows some Mohanes whose authority depended on the ability to manipulate the weather through preternatural means. Yet, in seventeenth-century Spanish America, there were pious non-Mohanes who also stopped storms, calmed the seas, and caused ferocious animals to behave like pets. Moreover, these virtuous men and women could also cure. Like the Mohanes, the saintly-pious never sought to provide theoretical models for their actions. Each healing act was singular. The virtuous also acted through the materiality of performance, extracting bundles of objects (including spindles and frogs) from within the bodily cavities of the exorcised. Using a vast pharmacopoeia of unclassifiable individual objects, these men and women cured the ill. The sacristies of parishes, cloisters, and cathedrals acted as pharmacies, housing the materia medica of Catholic Christianity: relics. Churches and cloisters were also sites for the empirical creation of knowledge and healing in the early-modern Atlantic. The modernity of the experiential in the vast global medical markets of America was every bit as Catholic as it was Afro-Caribbean.

Review of Pablo Gómez’s The Experiential Caribbean: Creating Knowledge and Healing in the Early Modern Atlantic (UNC, 2017).

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Whence Newton in the Seventeenth-Century Afro-American Tropics?

March 22, 2018 - 13:21
Tags:  Caribbean, Colonial Period, slavery, medicine, History of Science

Graphics by Michelle Jia : Image Flickr ( I 

Pablo Gómez’s The Experiential Caribbean identifies healers in seventeenth-century Cartagena and Tierra Firme who produced early-modern epistemologies comparable to those of Bacon, Newton and the Royal Society in London and Cambridge. Both groups privileged empiricism over dogma, the materiality of the experiential over the metaphysical, the utilitarian and the pragmatic over the theoretical. Yet Gómez’s Cartageneros thrived in a milieu characterized by death, slavery, deracination, and migration. Cartageneros were also blacks.

Gómez’s Caribbean is one in which tens of thousands of Africans disembarked every year to become household slaves. This was not a society of integrated plantations but of slaves-for-hire in a commercial hub. Cartagenero slaves did not necessarily live under their master’s roof. Slaves were sailors, traders, artisans, and, most important, itinerant healers. This was a world in which first generation African slaves could save, self-purchase manumit, and become vecinos and settlers. Africans could also achieve citizenship by running away to maroon communities. After resisting military campaigns, maroons often signed treaties; ran-away slaves could therefore become vecinos of autonomous towns.

Gómez zeroes in on Cartagenero black healers to demonstrate that these practitioners, called Mohanes, developed languages of the “experiential” to address the cosmopolies that was Cartagena, a veritable Babel where slaves spoke more than 70 languages as they came from all regions of West Africa, from Cacheu to Benguela. There were also Europeans of all nationalities as well as the survivors of a variety of indigenous communities.

These deracinated cosmopolitans, however, could not communicate through the language of dominant medical doctrines. Healers did not seek to explore the black box that was the body. Galenic medicine offered a hydraulic model in which four bodily fluids were in constant transmutation. Diet, climate, sleep, sexual activity, and exercise could alter this hydraulic equilibrium; so too could enemas, leeches, and emetics. Yet Galenic medicine was just one of many models striving for attention among Mohanes in the medical bazaar that was Cartagena. Practitioners were promiscuous in their eclecticism. Practice was not subordinated to the creation of systems; rather systems were subordinated to the specificities and contingencies of each individual case

How did healers communicate to individuals and communities the nature of disease wrecking the body within? Gómez’s contends that black practitioners spoke through the performance of materiality. As bundles of strange objects emerged from cavities onto the surface of bodies, audiences were exposed to the unintelligible mechanics of the body. Practitioners communicated with patients by smelling, tasting, and touching. Mohanes did not seek to be understood by their audiences. They uttered strange sounds in obscure languages. Unintelligibility was the very source of their authority. What most mattered was the materiality of the performance itself.

Gómez emphasizes that healers built huge pharmacopoeias without seeking to identify the universal properties of each drug. Healers manipulated materia medica in the same way that they consumed theories: each substance was deployed to address the individuality of the contingent. In short, there was no search for a language of the universal. The world of Mohanes was a world of particulars.

Yet performance was also a theater of the social. Mohanes cured the body by curing the body polity. Gómez insists that Mohanes were attuned to conflict within communities and saw equilibrium within the body as social peace. Bodily purges in rituals were symbolical exercises to identify troublemakers or to excise miscreants. These healers were powerful because they were dexterous readers of the palimpsest of the social.

Finally, Gómez also argues that authority came from the miraculous and the marvelous. Practitioners built epistemological authority in displays of preternatural power, not supernatural ones. In fact, practitioners adamantly denied any intervention in the realm of the supernatural when providing testimony to the Inquisition.

Remarkably, Christian bishops seeking relief from disease relied on those very black practitioners the bishops themselves had found guilty and condemned. Gómez offers many examples of practitioners that the Inquisition scattered into hospitals all over the urban landscape. Black practitioners used the massive infrastructure of charitable hospices and hostels, originally created to tend to the poor and the infirm, to peddle their wares.

Gómez follows one hundred Mohanes over the course of the seventeenth century through the archives of the Inquisition. Yet Gómez’s is not the story of victimized slaves disciplined by both physical coercion and ideologies of racial subordination. He repurposes documents on alleged black wizards and sorcerers to claim that these healers were among the most creative and powerful intellectuals of the global early-modern period. This upsets powerful and normative historiographies in both Latin American history and the history of science, therein lies the power of this study.

There are patterns, however, that indicate that the black practitioners of his story might have not been as exceptional and as modern as Gómez suggests. He follows some Mohanes whose authority depended on the ability to manipulate the weather through preternatural means. Yet, in seventeenth-century Spanish America, there were pious non-Mohanes who also stopped storms, calmed the seas, and caused ferocious animals to behave like pets. Moreover, these virtuous men and women could also cure. Like the Mohanes, the saintly-pious never sought to provide theoretical models for their actions. Each healing act was singular. The virtuous also acted through the materiality of performance, extracting bundles of objects (including spindles and frogs) from within the bodily cavities of the exorcised. Using a vast pharmacopoeia of unclassifiable individual objects, these men and women cured the ill. The sacristies of parishes, cloisters, and cathedrals acted as pharmacies, housing the materia medica of Catholic Christianity: relics. Churches and cloisters were also sites for the empirical creation of knowledge and healing in the early-modern Atlantic. The modernity of the experiential in the vast global medical markets of America was every bit as Catholic as it was Afro-Caribbean.

Review of Pablo Gómez’s The Experiential Caribbean: Creating Knowledge and Healing in the Early Modern Atlantic (UNC, 2017).

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